wildlife in the marches

home    contact    about


Notable Naturalists ...

Back to Main Page                  Promotional films


Are you researching your ancestors and family history?

The document below contains biographical and genealogical details about naturalists who have contributed to our knowledge and understanding of the flora and fauna of the Welsh Marches (Herefordshire, Shropshire, Montgomeryshire and Radnorshire). The naturalists are listed in alphabetical order.

This document is published as an appendix to my book Wildlife in the Marches (Marches Publications, 2015), which has much additional information about these naturalists, and their lives and times.


Allen, William Beriah (1873-1922)

Mycologist

Allen manufactured earthenware pottery, like his father William Allen (1835/6-1907) who owned Benthall Pottery Works in Coalbrookdale. William Allen senior married Julia Caroline Lopes (1835-1915), daughter of Isaac Yehiel Lopes, merchant of Liverpool, who owned ships and slaves. William and Julia also had two daughters - Edith (born 1866/7) and Hilda (born 1867/8). William Allen senior was a friend of the lepidopterist George Potts (p. 335) and named him as co-executor in his will.

William Allen the son was a founding member of the British Mycological Society. He was introduced to mycology by William Phillips (pp. 157, 334) and found numerous uncommon or rare fungi, such as Choiromyces meandriformis, Glischroderma cinctum, Inocybe squarrosa, Lycoperdon mammiforme and Ramariopsis pulchella. He also wrote a paper on the slime-moulds of Shropshire (Allen, 1911).


Armitage, Eleonora (1865-1961)

Botanist

Eleonora Armitage was the fifth surviving child of eight born to Arthur Armitage (1812-1892) and Isabel Jane (née Perceval, 1830-1921). Eleonora's siblings were Arthur (who died at birth on Christmas Day, 1851), Lucy (1852-1941), Isabel Jane (1855-1941, who became sister-in-charge of surgery at St Bartholomew's Hospital), Robert (1857-1954, who entered the priesthood and served as chaplain in the armed forces until the age of 55, gaining a D.S.O. in the Boer War, and subsequently becoming vicar of Stanton Lacy near Ludlow from 1922 until 1945), Ernest (1860-1940), then Eleonora herself, followed by Cecilia (1870-1959), Frank (1872-1955, who joined the Indian police, and whose son Sir Robert Perceval Armitage, 1906-1990, became Governor and Command-in-chief of Cyprus in 1954-1955, and Governor of Nyasaland in 1956-1961) and Arthur Haistwell Armitage (1873-1944, who became a tea-planter in Ceylon, now Sri Lanka).

The family home was Dadnor, Bridstow, near Ross-on-Wye, Herefordshire, and Eleonora (who did not marry) continued to live there with her younger sister Cecilia for many years after her parents had died, vacating only when the infirmities of old age compelled them to move to smaller premises nearby.

Her father, Arthur, like his own father, was a practising barrister and Receiver of the Herefordshire estates of Guy's Hospital, London, as well as a landed proprietor and farmer of 400 acres. Latterly he was a Justice of the Peace and Deputy Lieutenant. He was born at Burton Court, Linton, near Ross, the twelfth child of 14 born to Whaley Armitage (1767-1855), barrister, and Eleonora (née Haistwell, 1775-1838). Eleonora Haistwell's parents were Edward (1736-1783, of Kensington, London) and Eleonora (née Brickenden, 1749-1820, of Inkpen, Berkshire). Edward Haistwell's paternal grandfather, also Edward (c.1658-1709, see Dictionary of National Biography) was a Quaker merchant who became prominent in the early years of the Society of Friends. However, his son did not remain a Quaker.

Whaley Armitage was a son of Robert Armitage (1727-1787) of Kensington, London, who was born in and became a merchant of Liverpool, and Caroline (née Braithwaite, 1734-1802), daughter of John Braithwaite (1696-1740), a soldier and diplomatist of sufficient prominence to merit an entry in the Dictionary of National Biography. These Braithwaites, like the Haistwells, came from Westmorland. The Armitages had connections with Ireland, and the name of Whaley stems from Richard Chappell (or Chapel) Whaley (c.1700-1769) of Whaley Abbey, MP for Co. Wicklow, who married Catherine, daughter of Robert Braithwaite. Their second daughter, Anne, married John Fitzgibbon, Lord Clare, 1st Earl and Lord High Chancellor of Ireland. Richard Whaley, who was very wealthy, descended from Thomas Cromwell, and persecuted Irish Catholics. His son, Thomas Whaley (1766-1800), politician and gambler, continued his father's extravagant life-style (see Dictionary of National Biography).

Eleonora's mother, Isabel Jane Perceval, was a daughter of Mary Jane (née Bourke, 1802-1888, daughter of General Sir Richard Bourke, 1777-1855, army officer and colonial governor, and another of Eleonora's ancestors who merits entry in the Dictionary of National Biography) and Dudley Montague Perceval (1800-1856) of St George Hanover Square, London, who became Deputy Teller of Her Majesty's Exchequer. Dudley Perceval was one of six sons and six daughters born to Spencer Perceval (1762-1812) and Jane (née Spencer-Wilson, 1769-1844), daughter of Sir Thomas Spencer Wilson (died 1798) of Charlton House, Kent, and his wife Jane (née Weller).

Spencer Perceval, Eleonora's maternal great-grandfather, was a son of John Perceval (1711-1770), politician and 2nd Earl of Egmont, and his second wife Catherine (née Compton), daughter of Charles Compton and granddaughter of George Compton, 4th Earl of Northampton. Spencer Perceval was educated at Harrow and Cambridge, became a lawyer, Tory MP for Northampton in 1796, solicitor-general, attorney-general, Chancellor of the Exchequer, and then Prime Minister from 1809 until his death in 1812. Perceval is particularly remembered as the only serving British Prime Minister to be assassinated. He was shot in the lobby of the House of Commons by a disgruntled merchant who blamed the government for the failure of his business.

Both of Eleonora's parents came from financially comfortable and well-connected families, so her childhood in south Herefordshire was passed in circumstances propitious for extended study of local wildlife. Her father was sufficiently interested in natural history to be elected president in 1879 of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club. Eleonora's mother also took interest in natural history, and some of her water-colour paintings are at the Record Office in Hereford.


Joseph Babington (1768-1826)

Botanist

Joseph Babington was a younger brother of Thomas Babington (1758-1837), and uncle to the writer and historian Thomas Babington Macaulay (1800-1859).


Barnes, Albert John (1876-1947)

Coleopterist

Barnes was born in London, a son of Alfred John Barnes (born 1844, printer) and Maria Ann (née Doe, 1844). He married Jessie Grace Tatton (born 1882) in 1905, and in 1911 they had two children: Lilian Alice and Stanley Frank; Albert was working as a railway clerk. Barnes lived in London from 1894 until 1916, and in Shrewsbury from 1916 until 1932. He was county recorder for beetles in Shropshire.


Beckwith, William Edmund (1844-1892)

Ornithologist

Beckwith was a son of Henry Beckwith (1806-1888), rector of Eaton Constantine in Shropshire, and Ann Rose (née Eyton, 1810/1-1891), daughter of the Reverend John Eyton (died 1823), whose nephew was Thomas Campbell Eyton (pp. 84, 326).

The Census Returns of the late 19th century cite William as having no occupation and living with his parents, so he may have been incapacitated. If so, this was in contrast with his elder brother Henry (Harry) John Beckwith (1840-1927), who served as an officer in the army, and retired to Millichope Park, Munslow, near Craven Arms. Like William, their elder sister Rose Caroline (1837-1905) died unmarried.


Benson, Richard de Gylpyn (1856-1904)

Botanist

Between them, Benson's ancestors boast varied accomplishments, and at least eight of them are deemed worthy of accounts in the Dictionary of National Biography. His father, Richard Brownlow Benson (1831-1914) married Elizabeth Barbara Gilpin (1831-1917) in 1855. They had four sons - Richard, followed by Edwin Bernard (1858-1940), Sawrey Brownlow (1861-1918) and Francis Charles Jeffreys (1863-1878). Edwin was an unmarried district superintendent and lecturer at a school for the United Kingdom Alliance (a temperance movement) at Torquay in 1901. He never married, became an architect, and lived in Shrewsbury. Sawrey became a priest, like many of his forebears.

Benson's father, Richard senior, qualified as a physician and practised for a while in Harley Street, London, but a spinal complaint compelled his retirement in the late 1850s, and he spent the rest of his long life practising as a non-conformist minister at Church Pulverbatch in Shropshire, where his grandfather had formerly been rector, and where some of the family continued to reside. Richard and Elizabeth's two younger sons - Sawrey and Francis - were both born at Pulverbatch.

Richard Brownlow Benson was a son of Reverend John Benson (1783-1860), rector of Norton-sub-Hamden in Somerset, and Frances (née Gilpin, 1794-1865). John Benson was a son of Joseph Benson (1749-1821), who was born at Melmerby in Cumbria, where his father John (died 1769) was a landowner. The many blood-links between the families of Benson, Gilpin, Sawrey and Farish arise because long ago they all lived in the far north-west of England. Indeed, the spelling of Richard de Gylpyn Benson's middle name alludes to his distant ancestor Richard de Gylpyn (‘Richard the Rider') who was granted the 4,000 acre manor of Kentmere, and who slew the last wild boar in Westmorland during the reign of King John.

On Richard's mother's side of the family, Elizabeth Barbara Gilpin was a daughter of the Reverend Bernard Gilpin (1803-1871), non-conformist minister of Bengeo, Hertford, and Henrietta (née Jeffreys, 1807-1841). Henrietta was a great-great-grand-niece of Charles ‘Hanging Judge' Jeffreys (1645-1689), Lord Chancellor of the Exchequer. Bernard Gilpin was a younger brother of Frances Gilpin who married John Benson; their parents were the Reverend William Gilpin (1757-1848), who was rector of Church Pulverbatch for 42 years, and Elizabeth Barbara (née Farish, 1760-1832). Thus, Richard de Gylpyn Benson had the same great-grandparents on both his mother's and father's side of the family. Elizabeth Farish was sister to William Farish (1759-1837), professor of chemistry and philosophy at Cambridge. Their father was the Reverend James Farish (1714-1783), vicar of Stanwix near Carlisle, who had married Elizabeth Gilpin (born 1726), sister to Reverend William Gilpin Sr (1724-1804).

William Gilpin (1757-1848) was William Gilpin's (1724-1804) son. Gilpin senior was a well-known exponent of the picturesque during the Enlightenment, and a highly respected schoolmaster at Cheam, Surrey from 1750 until 1777. Thereafter, he became vicar of Boldre, Hampshire. He wrote a number of books, including A Dialogue upon the Gardens of the Right Honorable the Lord Viscount Cobham at Stowe (1748), The Life of Bernard Gilpin (1752), Observations on the River Wye (1782), as well as various other books promoting the Enlightenment's ‘romantic' view of nature and scenery, and Memoirs of Dr Richard Gilpin… and of his posterity…. together with an account of the author, by himself: and a pedigree of the Gilpin family (ed. W. Jackson, 1879).

William's eldest son, John Bernard (1754-1851) became British Consul for Rhode Island (1802-1832), while his younger son William followed his father's career in becoming headmaster at Cheam, and then rector at Pulverbatch.

William Gilpin senior married his cousin Margaret Gilpin (1725-1807). His father was Captain John Bernard Gilpin (1701-1776), who was an accomplished amateur artist, like his own father, William Gilpin (1657-1724).

William Gilpin's (1724-1804) younger brother Sawrey Gilpin (1737-1807) became a well-known professional painter of animals, and Sawrey's son, William Sawrey Gilpin (1761/2-1843) was also a prominent professional painter of landscapes, as well as a landscape gardener. He wrote a Tour through part of North Wales in 1818, which was not published, unlike his later Practical hints upon landscape gardening, with some remarks on domestic architecture, as connected with scenery (1832; 2nd edition 1835).

The Gilpins' connection with art resurfaced four generations later, when two sons of John Benson and Frances (née Gilpin) married daughters of the prominent artist James Bourne. One daughter, Edmunda (née Bourne, 1820) also exhibited paintings of flowers at the Royal Academy of Art. She married William Benson (1819-1903), who was an elder brother of Richard Brownlow Benson (Richard de Gylpyn's father), and an architect and independent minister of Hertford. He was also interested in botany. William and Edmunda's daughter, Margaret Jane Benson (1859-1936), a cousin of Richard de Gylpyn, became head of the botany department at the Royal Holloway College, University of London in 1893, and professor there from 1912 until 1922.

William Gilpin's (1657-1724) sister Anne (1660-1745) married the Reverend Jeremiah Sawrey of Broughton, Lancashire. He was a younger brother of John Gilpin Sawrey (died 1773).

Gilpins of the 17th and 18th centuries lived at Scaleby Castle near Carlisle, but the family's earlier seat was at Kentmere in the Lake District. William Gilpin's (1657-1724) father Richard (1625-1699) was born at Kentmere, but bought Scaleby Castle after the Restoration. Richard was a non-conformist divine who held the living of Greystoke in Cumberland until 1662, when he resigned following the Act of Uniformity, and practised medicine at Newcastle-upon-Tyne. He also wrote Demonologia Sacra.

Richard's father, Isaac Gilpin (1590-c.1660) of Strickland, Kettle, near Kendal married Ann Tunstall, daughter of Ralph Tunstall of Coatham Mundeville, near Darlington, Co. Durham. Ralph may have descended from Cuthbert Tunstall (1474-1559), who was a close friend of Erasmus, and Bishop of Durham from 1530 until his death. Cuthbert was doubtless instrumental in furthering the clerical career of his great-nephew, Bernard Gilpin (1517-1583) of Kentmere Hall, whose nickname was ‘Apostle of the North', and who was in turn great-uncle to Isaac Gilpin. Bernard's younger brother George (?1514-1602) was a prominent diplomatist and translator.

In these ways and by these means Richard de Gylpyn's forebears repeatedly intermarried, reciprocally fostered each others' clerical careers, and shared interests such as art and painting.

Richard de Gylpyn (‘Hardy') Benson was born in east London on June 25th 1856, the eldest of four boys. However, with his father retiring because of ill health in the late 1850s, Richard the son spent much of his childhood in Shropshire, and was educated in Shrewsbury at a private school run by Dr Edward Calvert.

Richard trained as a solicitor, and was ‘manager to [a] solicitor' in London when aged 24 at the time of the Census Return in 1881, at which time he was visiting the household of Edward Henry Gregory (1826-1885), merchant of London. Also in the same household was Joseph R. Benson (born 1841/2, Islington, London), photographer, nephew to the Gregorys. Joseph was also living with the Gregorys in 1861, so the Bensons and Gregorys were already related by the mid-19th century. Joseph Benson (born 1780, son of the prominent Wesleyan minister Joseph Benson (1749-1821, and elder brother to John Benson who married Frances Gilpin) married a Louisa Gregory. This link between the Bensons and Gregorys was further strengthened when Richard married Edward Gregory's daughter Elizabeth Mary (1862-1948) in 1883. Louisa Gregory was Elizabeth Mary's aunt. Edward Henry Gregory's father was Richard Gregory (born 1779), a miller at Cheltenham. In earlier times the Gregorys had been at Bristol, from where they were involved in the slave trade. And tracing back through history, Lt-Col William Gregory was prominent in the Civil War. William's father Roger Gregory (fl. 1629) lived at Stockwith in south Yorkshire, to where his grandfather William Gregory (fl. 1500-1525) had moved from Stoney Middleton in Derbyshire. This William Gregory was apparently descended from Sir Francis Gregory of Freseley, Asfordby (or Ashfordby) and Beckensfield, Leicestershire. Sir Francis was standard-bearer to Sir Simon de Montford, and was killed at the Battle of Evesham in 1265.

Richard and Elizabeth Benson had one child, Francis Alan Gregory Benson (1885-1971). At this time Richard had a legal practice in Fleet Street, London, but before long ill health compelled him to retire (just as his father had before him) to Church Pulverbatch, aged 30. He endured 18 years of debilitating pain as progressive arthritis crippled him, and towards the end of his life he could not walk without assistance. He died at Pulverbatch on February 24th 1904.

Like his antecedents and siblings, Richard was a religious man, and as a youth he taught Sunday classes to children. In later years at Pulverbatch, he served as a member of the parish council.

In 1915, Richard's son Francis married Jessie Carter (1892-1972), a farmer and coal merchant's daughter, and soon after the First World War they emigrated to Kenya, where Francis was a farmer. They had five children - Mary Olive (‘Molly', 1916-1921), Alan de Gylpyn (1919-2009), Marjorie Lavinia Tomlinson (1917-2007), Donald Charles (1922-1978) and Michael John Carter (1925-2007). Donald became a farmer in New Zealand, and Michael went to Australia. Francis and Jessie both died in New Zealand.


Binstead, Charles Herbert (1862-1941)

Bryologist

The Binsteads lived in Hampshire for many generations, better-off sections of the tribe being of yeoman-class. Edward Binstead (Charles Herbert's great-great-grandfather) married Mary Freeland at Portsea in 1755. Their son, also Edward (1758-1801), married Elizabeth Slight at Portsmouth in 1779, and they produced 11 children, the eighth being Cheeseman Henry Binstead (1796-1875), Charles Herbert's grandfather.

Cheeseman's two brothers joined the army, but he enlisted in the Royal Navy in 1810. His early years of service must have been eventful, with the Napoleonic Wars in full swing. After that he participated in the naval blockade of North American ports, then came the Battle of Algiers, action to subdue the African slave-trade, and manoeuvres off the Brazilian coast. Later in his naval career, as a Lieutenant, Binstead supervised the transport of troops to various colonies of the British empire.

In 1841/2, Cheeseman Binstead ceased active naval service, and went on half-pay. This necessitated moving out of barracks in Portsmouth, and may also have prompted a need to supplement his income with alternative employment. In any event, Cheeseman took his family to live in Wakefield, Yorkshire, where he became a railway inspector and superintendent for the Manchester and Leeds Railway Company. In 1847, this became the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, and the following year Binstead was dismissed from his post. However, following considerable public protest at this treatment, he was reappointed as manager and passenger superintendent of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, and remained in their employment for the next 21 years, until he retired in 1871 when the company was restructured.

Throughout this period, Binstead remained on half-pay with the Royal Navy, so could have been called up if the need arose. In 1870, he was made Rear-Admiral, and also appointed Deputy Lieutenant of the West Riding of Yorkshire. In 1875, he was promoted to Vice-Admiral, and retired from the navy, aged 78.

Cheeseman Binstead married Emily Fulleck (1805-1855) at Bramshott, Hampshire, in 1833. She was the daughter of John Fulleck (1777-1858) of Bramshott. The couple had six children, of whom two died in childhood. Charles Henry Binstead (1835-1871), Charles Herbert's father, was the only surviving son. In 1861, he married Elizabeth Bailey (1838/9-1909), daughter of Thomas Bailey, gentleman of St Johns, Wakefield. They had two sons, Charles Herbert being the first born, with Ernest Arthur arriving in 1863. Charles Henry trained to become a civil engineer, and went into business as a land and mineral surveyor, initially in Wakefield; later he moved with his family to Grasmere in the Lake District. Thus, the Binstead boys spent their formative years in the Lake District, which probably explains why Charles Herbert frequently revisited the Lakes in later life, and investigated the region's very rich bryoflora.

Ernest Arthur Binstead (1863-1941) became a solicitor, and married Mary Openshaw (1876-1928), daughter of James Alfred Openshaw of Kendal at Hastings in 1915. Mary became a successful novelist and author of articles, writing under her maiden name. Interestingly, Edgar Prichard, a cousin of Augustin Ley (pp. 77, 330, who was Charles Herbert Binstead's predecessor as Herefordshire's foremost bryologist) married an Openshaw girl whose paternal family originated (as did James Alfred Openshaw) from Bury in Lancashire.

Charles Herbert was intended for the Church, and was a pupil at Fawley Vicarage in Hampshire at the time of the 1881 Census. He was at Oxford from 1881 to 1884, and curate at Aspatria in Cumbria from 1887 to 1890. In that year he married Mary Agnes Browne (c.1863-1951), daughter of the Reverend William Sainsbury Browne (1829-1915) of Somerset. William Browne was a son of Richard Browne (1789/90-1855) of Brixton, Surrey, gent., and Sarah Jane (née Sainsbury, ?1789).

Binstead moved to Herefordshire once he had married, and spent the next 50 years serving in the diocese of Hereford, first as curate at Eardisley (1890-1897), then as vicar at Breinton (1897-1906), and rector of Whitbourne (1906-1912) and Mordiford (1915-1923). Charles and Mary had one child, a daughter, Elsie Marguerite (1894-1980) who married John Pincke Lee (1884-1945), land agent, in 1921.

Outside bryology, Charles Herbert Binstead was knowledgeable in all branches of field botany, keenly interested in sketching water-colours and growing garden flowers and fruits.


Bodenham, Thomas (c.1804-1873)

Ornithologist, Naturalist

Little is known of Bodenham's life and background. He was born at Milson near Neen Sollars, Cleobury Mortimer. His father was probably Thomas Bodenham (1781-1804), who died of injuries sustained by falling from his horse at Ludlow. His mother was born Ann Home (c.1781-1825), probably a sister of Susannah Home who married William Bodenham at Bishop's Castle in 1798. William and Susannah's son John Home Bodenham (1811-1860) of Shrewsbury was Thomas Bodenham's cousin.

Thomas Bodenham married Eliza Ann (or Anne) Dickie (née Raydon, died 1860). The 1851 Census Return cites Thomas as a mortgagee living with Eliza at Abbey Foregate, Shrewsbury. In 1861, he was a landed proprietor and widower living at Sunfield House, Abbey Foregate, Shrewsbury. He left estate valued at under £9,000.

Bodenham was primarily an ornithologist, but he was also sufficiently interested in botany to join the Botanical Society of London in the 1840s.


Boinville, Alexander Chastel de (c.1825-1898)

Malacologist

Alexander Chastel de Boinville (c.1824-1898) of Hereford and Dilwyn is mentioned in Shropshire's Victoria County History and Boycott and Bowell's paper (p. 115) on Herefordshire molluscs in the Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club. Alexander was a son of John Collins Alfred Chastel de Boinville (1797-1880) and Harriet (née Lambe, 1800-1876). Harriet Lambe's father was William Lambe (1765-1847, physician) who merits an entry in the Dictionary of National Biography and died at Dilwyn. Alexander married Eliza Russell (c.1824-1892).


Bowell, Ernest William (1872-1935)

Malacologist

Bowell was a son and eldest of seven children born to the Reverend William Bowell (1837/8-1911), headmaster of Hereford, and his second wife Sarah (née Jones, 1839/40-1912). Ernest was a clergyman in 1901 and 1911, but qualified as a doctor in 1917 and moved to London. He married Lily Elizabeth Hall in 1908.


Bowman, John Eddowes (1785-1841)

Botanist

Bowman was a banker by profession, and merits an entry in the Dictionary of National Biography, as do his four sons: Eddowes Bowman (1810/1-1869, dissenting tutor), Henry Bowman (c.1814-1883, architect), Sir William Bowman (1816-1892, physiologist, oculist and surgeon) and John Eddowes Bowman (1819/20-1856, professor of chemistry at King's College, London). Of these sons, John Eddowes married Ellen Paget and William married Harriet Paget; Ellen and Harriet were daughters of Thomas Paget (1768-1841, surgeon and apothecary, but not apparently related to James Paget (1814-1899) after whom Paget's Disease was named).

John Eddowes Bowman senior married his first cousin Elizabeth Eddowes (c.1788/91-1859), who also took interest in botany. Elizabeth was a daughter of William Eddowes (1754-1835), whose father was Joshua Eddowes (1724-1811, ironmonger of Wrexham). Joshua's daughter Catherine Eddowes (1759-1851) married Eddows (sic) Bowman (1758-1844, tobacconist and then banker) and their son was John Eddowes Bowman (1785-1841). Eddows Bowman's (1758-1844) mother was born Susannah Eddows (1727-1762) and was quite probably related to Joshua Eddowes.


Boycott, Arthur Edwin (1878-1938)

Malacologist

Boycott was a son of William Boycott (1842-1914, solicitor of Hereford) and Eliza (née Mellard, 1842-1911, daughter of James Mellard (1801/2-1866, iron-founder of Rugeley, Staffordshire). In 1904, Arthur Boycott married Constance Louisa Agg, daughter of Colonel William Agg (1831-1911) of Cheltenham. Arthur and Constance had two sons.


Brook, Frederick Arthur (1886-1957)

Bird-photographer

Brook was a watchmaker of Builth Wells, son of Frederick Herbert Lewis Brook (c.1853-1897), watchmaker and jeweller, and his wife Emily Mary (née Williams, c.1864-1953).


Brown, Littleton (1698-1749)

Naturalist

Littleton Brown was the seventh child in a family of nine born to Jeremiah (died 1734) and Mary (died 1717) Brown of Bishop's Castle. Littleton's father, Jeremiah, was an attorney, and acted as steward for the estates of Robert More senior, gent., and managed electoral bribes for Richard Vernon, the local Whig candidate in 1722.

Jeremiah Brown's eldest son, Francis, seems not to have been baptized at Bishop's Castle, but possibly at Mansell Gamage in Herefordshire. The Alumni Oxoniensis cites Francis Brown, son of Jeremy, gent, of Garnons (in the parish of Mansell Gamage), Herefordshire, who matriculated in 1704, aged 15. Francis followed his father into the legal profession, and became a member of the Inner Temple, London, but died in 1721. A document at Shropshire Archives (the Record Office in Shrewsbury), dated 1719 (ref: D3651/B/31/2/6) refers to Jeremiah Brown Sr, of Bishop's Castle, gent., and Francis, of the Inner Temple, London, esq., eldest son and heir of the said Jeremiah Sr It is possible that Francis was a son of a marriage before Jeremiah married Littleton Brown's mother, or perhaps Jeremiah and Mary were living at Garnons before they moved to Bishop's Castle.

Jeremiah's other children were all baptized in Bishop's Castle: Elizabeth in 1689, followed by Maria (or Mary) the following year, Jeremiah in 1693, Sands (a girl) in 1695, Judith in 1697, then Littleton, Anna Margaretta in 1700 and Gulielmus (William) in 1706. William died young.

Several Brown (or Browne) families held land in the Clun Valley during the 17th century, and Jeremiah senior (?1662-1734) was probably the third son of Thomas Brown (or Browne), gent. (died c.1707-1710) and Margaret (or Mary) of Clunton and Clunbury, a few miles south of Bishop's Castle. One of Jeremiah's brothers had a daughter, Ann, who in 1731 married Edmund Waring (died 1739) of Bishop's Castle and Owlbury. It seems likely that Edmund Waring was related to Anne Waring (1662-1722) of Elston Hall, Nottinghamshire, paternal grandmother to the botanist Robert Waring Darwin (1724-1816) and his younger brother Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802), and hence great-grandmother to Robert Waring Darwin (1766-1848), physician of Shrewsbury, and great-great-grandmother to Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882, pp. 93, 325).

Jeremiah's second son, Jeremiah junior (1693-1761) had five children by Sarah Luscott (1724-1769) of Clunbury, but Jeremiah and Sarah did not marry. Of Littleton Brown's other brothers and sisters, in 1721 Mary married Somerset Davies, a mercer of Ludlow, Sands married Thomas Garnett at Hopesay (a village not far from Bishop's Castle), but Anna Margaretta was buried in Bishop's Castle shortly after her 18th birthday in 1718.

Anna Margaretta only just survived her mother, Mary, who had died the previous year. Nothing is known of Littleton Brown's mother before her married life. Was her maiden surname Littleton, and if so, how was she related to the other Littleton (or Lyttleton) families of the West Midlands, such as at Pillaton Hall in Staffordshire, Spetchley in Worcestershire, or Munslow, Henley, and Moor Park near Ludlow in Shropshire (see Salwey, p. 336)? These Littletons owned big estates and were socially very prominent.

Apart from Littleton Brown's first name, other circumstantial evidence for his mother being connected with the Littletons includes that family's high profile in political life and the legal profession of the 17th century. William Littleton (1591-1653) became a burgess of the borough of Bishop's Castle in 1628, and steward of the manor of Bishop's Castle, as well as Chief Justice of the circuit in north Wales in 1649. William, who married Judith Eaton and lived at The Moore (Moor Park) was a son of Sir Edward Littleton (1550-1622) of Munslow and Henley, and Mary (née Walter, 1565-1633). Sir Edward was also Chief Justice of north Wales in his time. Sir Edward's eldest son (William's brother), Edward (1589-1645), became Baron Sir Edward Littleton of Henley, and was solicitor-general and Lord Keeper to Charles I. He merits an entry in the Dictionary of National Biography, as do his sons, Edward (1625-1702) and Sir Thomas Littleton (c.1619-1681) of Stoke St Milburgh. Sir Thomas's son, Sir Thomas Jr (c.1647-1709) is also in the Dictionary of National Biography.

So did Jeremiah Brown senior meet his bride through connections within the legal profession? Certainly, Jeremiah became steward of the manor of Bishop's Castle, just as William Littleton had been many years before.

If Littleton Brown's mother was connected with these Littleton gentry, his father's family were by comparison minor landowners. Nevertheless, the wills of the two Jeremiahs mention land in the parishes of Bishop's Castle, Lydbury North and Mainstone in Shropshire, and Llanfairwaterdine, Beguildy and Churchstoke across the Welsh border.

In the late 17th and 18th centuries, another branch of the Browne tribe lived at Mellington Hall, Churchstoke, a few miles west of Bishop's Castle, where a Thomas Browne was High Sheriff of Montgomeryshire in 1735. The Brownes of Mellington were bailiffs of Montgomery from 1680 until 1860. Jeremiah junior's will mentions Thomas Browne of Mellington Hall, Churchstoke.

Thomas Duppa of Cheney Longville, Wistanstow, near Craven Arms and Robert Price of Berriew were co-executors with Thomas Browne for Jeremiah junior's will; were these gentlemen husbands of some of Littleton Brown's relatives? The same will also mentions Reverend Clive of Wigmore, husband of Jeremiah's late sister.

Other documents dated 1730 at the Record Office in Shrewsbury refer to Jeremiah Brown of Mellington. Was this man one of the Jeremiahs of Bishop's Castle, or a different person? Indeed, tracing pedigree in a family of Browns (or Brownes) is difficult because the surname is so common, and much remains to be clarified about Littleton Brown's family background and connections.

Littleton Brown went up to Oxford in 1715, and graduated in 1719. Virtually nothing is known of how he spent the next 13 years, but in March 1723 he became deacon at Peterborough. By 1726, he was in London, but also sending botanical records from the Welsh border to the German botanist Dillenius in Oxford. That summer he accompanied Dillenius and Samuel Brewer on their botanical tour in Wales (p. 39). He was elected to Fellowship of the Royal Society in 1729. In 1732, Brown became vicar of Kerry, near Newtown in Montgomeryshire, and held the incumbency until his death. He was also a Justice of the Peace at the Welsh sessions, and probably derived much of his income from lands which he inherited from his father.

Brown knew Robert More junior (1703-1780) of More, near Bishop's Castle, who corresponded with Linnaeus. More was a bryological friend as well as neighbour to Brown, and the Record Office at Shrewsbury has a letter from Brown to More, dated September 1739, in which Brown offers to take any mosses which More has found but cannot identify to Oxford (where he was going on his journey to London). He also mentions not being able to find Hypopitys [Yellow Birdsnest (Monotropa hypopitys)] in the neighbourhood.

Brown seems not to have felt continually bound by his pastoral responsibilities at Kerry, and may never have lived there. Apart from his ties at Bishop's Castle, he apparently spent quite a lot of time at Bath (Somerset) and in London. In 1736, he found a strange insect in a pond at Bexley (south-east London) and communicated his discovery to the Royal Society. And in 1743, writing to William Shenstone, a minor poet, Brown invited him to accompany him on a two-year tour of Portugal and elsewhere. Shenstone also mentions having seen Brown's fossils, plants, poetry, etc.

Brown may also have had property or relatives or both in Gloucestershire. The Record Office at Gloucester has a letter from Littleton Brown of Lydney (ref: D2026/A14), dated 1742. He died ‘late of Bishop's Castle', an intestate bachelor at Bath, where he was buried at the abbey on September 7th 1749. Littleton Brown's father had bequeathed his properties to Littleton rather than to Jeremiah junior, but these passed to the elder brother after Littleton's death.


Buddicom, Robert Arthur (1874-1951)

Malacologist

Buddicom was the son of William Squire Buddicom (1840-1922), whose mother Elizabeth (née Pinches, 1809-1859) was sister to the naturalist William Pinches (1802-1849, pp. 114, 334). Robert's mother was born Elizabeth Haughton Hornby (1839-1914), daughter of the Reverend Robert Hornby (1804-1879) and Maria Leyland (née Feilden, 1811-1856), daughter of Sir William Henry Feilden (1772-1850). Sir William's great-grandfather Randle Feilden (1645-1721) was also great-great-great-grandfather to Oswald Mosley Feilden (1837-1924, pp. 114, 326).

Maria Leyland Feilden's nephew Henry Wemyss Feilden (1838-1921, son of her brother Sir William Henry Feilden, 1812-1879) was a noted ornithologist. Catherine Margaret Feilden (1803-1870, who was Maria Leyland Feilden's elder sister) had a granddaughter Clementine Ogilvy Hozier, who married the future Prime Minister Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (1874-1965).

Robert Buddicom's daughter Jacintha by his first marriage to Laura Finlay was for a time sweetheart to Eric Blair, the author George Orwell.


Bull, Henry Graves (1818-1885)

Mycologist

Bull was a son of Edward Bull, gentleman-farmer of Pitsford, Northamptonshire, and his second wife Mary (née Pell). Henry married Elizabeth Read (1830-1915), daughter of Henry Read, merchant of London, granddaughter of William Banbury (1766-1852, banker), cousin of the politician and stockbroker Sir Frederick Banbury (later Lord Banbury of Southam, 1850-1936), and descended from the famous architect Sir Christopher Wren (1632-1723). Henry and Elizabeth Bull had nine children.


Butler, Samuel (1774-1839)

Botanist

Butler was a son of William Butler, draper of Kenilworth, Warwickshire, and his wife Lucy (née Brosell). He was appointed headmaster of Shrewsbury School in 1798 for 38 years, and in the same year married Harriet Apthorp, daughter of the Reverend East Apthorp, rector of St Mary-le-Bow, London. He remained headmaster at Shrewsbury for 38 years, and was also ordained bishop of Lichfield and Coventry.

During the 19th century, the Butlers married into other families who were also interested in natural history. Samuel Butler's son Thomas Butler shared his father's interest in botany, and reorganized the herbarium at Shrewsbury Museum during his retirement. Thomas's sister-in-law Anna Worsley (1806-1876) was a highly accomplished botanist who took interest in mosses, drew fungi, and married Frederick Russell (also a botanist), whose nephew Thomas Hawkes Russell (1851-1913) wrote an introductory book Mosses and Liverworts (1908; 2nd edition 1910) (Allen, 1979).

However, the botanical interests of Samuel and Thomas Butler did not pass to Thomas's son Samuel (1835-1902, the writer and artist, see Dictionary of National Biography).


Carr, Frederic Mark Bennoch (1878-1967)

Lepidopterist

Carr was a son of Francis Bennoch Carr (1848-1930), civil engineer and merchant, and his wife Mary (née Rose, 1847-1934). His paternal grandfather Mark William Carr (1822-1888) was chief engineer to the Great South of India Railway.

Carr became a priest, and married Lucy Elfrida Lloyd Owen (1884-1956, daughter of Edmund Lloyd Owen) in 1909.

The Reverend Carr found Lepidoptera in Radnorshire between 1911 and 1915. He was vicar of Alvanley, Merseyside from 1917 to 1928, and then of Ditton near Liverpool from 1928.


Chapman, Thomas Algernon (c.1842-1921)

Entomologist

Chapman was born in Glasgow, the son of Thomas Chapman (1816-1879, master cutler, and a keen entomologist) and Hannah Charlotte (née Eames, 1820-1903). He had three younger sisters: Emily Frances, Gertrude A. and Laura Mary. His recently widowed mother Hannah and his unmarried sisters Emily and Laura were living with him in 1881, and Hannah and Emily were still with him in Herefordshire in 1891. They lived in Reigate, Surrey after Thomas had retired early in the 20th century.


Clay, Theresa Rachel (1911-1995)

Studied avian lice

Clay was a daughter of Sir George Felix Neville Clay (1871-1941, architect) and Rachel (née Hobhouse, 1883-1981), daughter of Henry Hobhouse (1854-1937, barrister and politician, see Dictionary of National Biography) and Margaret Heyworth (née Potter, 1854-1921).

Theresa's maternal great-grandparents were Richard Potter (1817-1872) and Lawrencina (née Heyworth, 1821-1882). Richard and Lawrencina were also maternal grandparents of Richard Henry Meinertzhagen (1878-1967, pp. 257, 333), the soldier, spy, and ornithologist who shot and collected birds. Thus, Theresa Clay was Meinertzhagen's niece.

Theresa Clay married Rodney Gerald Searight (1909-1991) in 1974.


Cocking, George (1808-1888)

Geologist, Botanist

Cocking was born in Sandwich, Kent, a son of Joseph Cocking (c.1775-1835) and his wife Catherine Elizabeth (née Maxwell, 1776-1827).

Cocking married Elizabeth Harding (1809-1888) in Ludlow in 1833. They had five children: Henry Whittall (1836-1916), George (1837-1861/2), William Harding (1838-1842), Alice Marian (1848-1884) and Mary Ellen (1849-1907). Alice married Nicholas Temperley (1844-1924, a provisions merchant of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, who was a cousin and friend of the Reverend John Temperley, minister of the Congregational Church in Ludlow from 1866-1871). Nicholas Temperley joined the Moss Exchange Club (forerunner of the British Bryological Society) in about 1921, and his son George William Temperley (1875-1967) also became a naturalist, taking interest in birds and plants, and becoming curator at the Hancock Museum in Newcastle-upon-Tyne in the 1930s.


Crouch, James Frederick (1809-1888)

Botanist

Crouch studied bryophytes, lichens and vascular plants, as well as geology. He was the first to explore and evaluate the flora of north Herefordshire, and added many species to the known bryoflora of Herefordshire, thus considerably assisting Augustin Ley in his compilation of records for the Flora of Herefordshire (1889). His herbarium is at Hereford Museum.

James Frederick Crouch was born on July 26th 1809 at Clophill, near Higham Gobion, Bedfordshire, a son of James Crouch (1782-1853), gentleman and farmer, and Alice (née Wing, 1786-1858). James Crouch senior was himself a son of James Crouch (died 1815) of Clophill, and Martha (née Godfrey, died 1794).

James Frederick had six siblings: Abraham Wing Crouch (died 1865), Alice Maria, Edward, Elizabeth, Richard Leonard and the Reverend William Crouch (1818-1846) of Cainhoe, Bedfordshire, and who botanized in Bedfordshire. James Frederick's nephew Charles Crouch (1855-1944) also botanized in Bedfordshire, where he was a farmer.

James Frederick began his education at Dr Simpson's school at Baldock, and then went up to Oxford and trained for the priesthood, graduating Bachelor of Arts in 1840, and Bachelor of Divinity in 1841. He became a don and bursar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. He joined the Botanical Society of London in 1847.

In 1849, he was inducted as rector of Pembridge, Herefordshire, and spent the remainder of his life there. 1849 was also the year in which he married Elizabeth Stephens Wardale (1820-1888), daughter of John Reynolds Wardale (died 1858) of Hitchin, Hertfordshire. The couple lived in the nearby village of Eardisley. Elizabeth's brother was the Reverend John Wardale of Datchworth, Hertfordshire. In addition to being rector of Pembridge, Crouch was also prebendary of Hereford Cathedral, Rural Dean of Leominster, and justice for the peace in the county of Hereford.


Darwin, Charles Robert (1809-1882)

Naturalist

Darwin was a son of Robert Waring Darwin (1766-1848), physician of Shrewsbury, and his wife Susannah (née Wedgwood, 1765-1817), daughter of the famous potter Josiah Wedgwood (1730-1795). Robert Waring Darwin's father was Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802), physician and philosopher. Erasmus Darwin's paternal grandmother was born Anne Waring (1662-1722), daughter of Robert Waring (died 1662).

As a young man, Darwin collected insects in the Marches with his friend and neighbour Frederick William Hope (pp. 93, 328).


Dovaston, John Freeman Milward (1782-1854)

Ornithologist, Naturalist

Dovaston was a son of John Dovaston (1740-1808) and Ann (or Anne) Harper (or Hooper, 1745-1807). John senior was himself a son of John Dovaston (1712-1773, attorney, antiquary, naturalist and musician) and Margaret (née Rogers, 1714-1758), daughter of Samuel Rogers and Susanna (née Milward). Susanna's father was the Reverend John Milward, who lived in the West Indies, where the Milward and Freeman families intermarried. Sir William Freeman (died 1707) was a governor of Jamaica, and later lived at Fawley Court, Henley, Buckinghamshire.


Duncan, John Bishop (1869-1953)

Bryologist

John Bishop Duncan was born in Edinburgh in 1869, the eldest child of John Duncan (born c.1839), who was a son and eldest child of six born to John Duncan (born c.1815), schoolmaster and carter, and Marion (née Taylor, c.1811). John Bishop Duncan's mother was born Margaret Tyrie Bishop in about 1842, a daughter and third child of eight born to John Bishop (born 1812/3), a grocer, and Margaret (née Tyrie, 1812/3). Both the Duncan and Bishop families lived in Dalkeith in the mid-19th century. John and Margaret had three children: John Bishop, then Margaret Tyrie (born c.1876) and Peter Rankine (c.1880-1949). Peter was a law clerk in 1901, subsequently a partner in the firm of Marr, Duncan and Laing (later Marr and Duncan) in Edinburgh, and of Drummond Brothers, seed-merchants of Leith. He emigrated to Canada, where he married and died.

About 1871, John Duncan took his family to live in Moffat, where he was rector of and taught at the academy. It seems very likely that the Duncans would have known the Macvicar family, for John Gibson Macvicar (1800-1884) - father of the bryologist Symers Macvicar (1857-1932) - was the minister at Moffat. Perhaps one family enthused the other about the delights of bryology.

After spending his childhood in Moffat, John Bishop Duncan became a bank clerk. At first he worked in Moffat, then at Kelso, Stratford-upon-Avon, and Birmingham (where he lived at the time of the 1891 Census), and later in Bewdley, Worcestershire (he was there by 1901, and lived in Park Lane, Bewdley in 1912).

Duncan remained a bachelor, and retired from the Midland Bank at Bewdley to Berwick-upon-Tweed in 1923, where he lived in Summerhill Terrace, just along from John Bishop (a nephew of his mother's) and his wife. John Bishop's father (John Bishop Sr, c.1838-1871), elder brother of Duncan's mother Margaret established a confectionery business at Marygate, Berwick-upon-Tweed in 1867. John Bishop Jr (the eldest son, 1861-1935) entered the family business when his father died in 1871, and when John Towers (a brother-in-law of John Bishop Sr) retired in 1899 John Bishop Jr took his brother Thomas into partnership in the business, which retained the name of Towers and Bishop.

Duncan was still living in Summerhill Terrace in 1947, but had moved to North Road by the following year.

In addition to his bryological interests, Duncan was also a keen fisherman and gardener, and enjoyed music.


Egerton, William Henry (1811-1910)

Conchologist

William Henry Egerton was rector of Whitchurch, Shropshire for 62 years from 1846 until 1908. Ludlow Museum has a portrait of him.

The Reverend Prebendary William Henry Egerton was high-born, a son of the Reverend Sir Philip Grey Egerton (1767-1829) of Oulton Park, Tarporley, Cheshire, and Dame Rebecca Du Pré (1780-1870). Rebecca was a daughter of Sir Josiah Du Pré (1715-1780) of Wilton Park, Buckinghamshire and sometime Governor of Madras. Her mother was Lady Rebecca Alexander (1753-1800), who was a sister of James, 1st Earl of Caledon.

William Henry Egerton's elder brother was the palaeontologist Sir Philip de Malpas Grey (1806-1881, see Dictionary of National Biography).

William married Louisa Cunliffe (1817-1902), daughter of Sir Brooke Cunliffe (1790-1857) of Erbistock Hall near Wrexham, and Lady Mary Pirrie (1796-1825). William and Louisa had a large family of at least ten children that included Lt-Col Sir William Egerton (1842-1899), Sir Brooke de Malpas Grey-Egerton (1845-1945) and Lt-Col John Francis Egerton (1846-1898).

The botanist Maurice Gepp (pp. 189, 327) was distantly related to the Egertons.


Eyton, Thomas Campbell (1809-1880)

Ornithologist

Eyton was centrally placed in a nest of related naturalists. His parents were Thomas Eyton (1777-1855, magistrate, colliery-owner and Sheriff of Shropshire) and Elizabeth (née Campbell, 1790-1817), daughter of Major-General Dugald Campbell (1742-1809) and Elizabeth née Mackay (1761-1810). A brother of Elizabeth was Sir James Campbell (died 1835), army officer and colonial governor (see Dictionary of National Biography).

Thomas Eyton senior's parents were Thomas Eyton (1754-1816, Receiver of Taxes for Shropshire) and Mary (née Rocke, 1756-1809). The Rockes became keen naturalists (pp. 85, 335).

Thomas Campbell Eyton's first cousin Ann Rose Eyton, daughter of the Reverend John Eyton (1778-1823) married Henry Beckwith. Ann and Henry's son William Edmund Beckwith (1844-1892, pp. 85, 321) was a keen ornithologist like his great-uncle Thomas.

Thomas Campbell Eyton had three younger brothers: Robert (1811-1818), Charles James (1812-1854) and William Archibald (1813-1869) as well as two sisters: Anne (born 1807) and Elizabeth (1810). William Archibald Eyton (1813-1869) married Georgiana Penelope Cumberland (1836-1877, daughter of Major-General Charles Brownlow Cumberland).

Eyton married Elizabeth Frances Slaney (1813-1870) in 1835. Her father was Robert Aglionby Slaney (1791-1862, MP) of Walford Manor, who was a keen ornithologist. Thomas and Elizabeth Eyton lived at Eyton Hall, Wellington, Shropshire, and had ten children: Elizabeth Charlotte (1838-1917, who died unmarried), Rose Mary (1840-1926, unmarried), Frances Julia (1841-1931, who married the Reverend Frederick Freeman O'Donoghue in 1866), Thomas Slaney (1843-1899), Katherine Anne (1844), Robert Slaney (1845, who entered the priesthood), Matilda Margaret (1845/6), William Campbell (1848-1879, an engineer who died in Montreal, Canada), Mary Elizabeth (1851, unmarried in 1891) and Alice Emily (1854-1860).

Thomas Slaney Eyton married Isabel Sarah Dashwood Ruxton (1845-1941, daughter of John Henry Ruxton, landowner of Tunbridge Wells, Kent) in 1866. The widowed Isabel Eyton married secondly in 1907 Archibald Cumberland Eyton (1867-1954), cousin of her first husband and son of William Archibald Eyton.


Feilden, Oswald Mosley (1837-1924)

Botanist

Feilden was a son and one of nine children of the Reverend Robert Mosley Feilden (1794-1862, barrister, then rector of Bebington, Cheshire) and his wife Frances Mary (née Ramsay, c.1801-1893). Robert Mosley Feilden was a son of Robert Feilden (1760-1830) and Ann (née Mosley, 1763-1810), daughter of Sir John Parker Mosley (1733-1798) of Ancoats, Manchester. Ann Mosley's brother Oswald Mosley (1761-1789) was a great-great-great-grandfather of the fascist Sir Oswald Mosley (1896-1980, see Dictionary of National Biography) (see Buddicom, pp. 114, 324).

Feilden became a priest, and rector of Welsh Frankton near Oswestry from 1865. He did not marry.

Other Feildens were naturalists too: Frank Thurstane Feilden (1847-1910) and his elder brother Robert (1842-1910) were both wildfowlers at Borth in Cardiganshire, and Frank stuffed birds that he shot, and sent records of birds to the naturalist John Henry Salter. Both Feilden brothers died in the field; Frank drowned after falling from his punt while wildfowling, and Robert was killed by a train as he walked along the railway line.


Forrest, Herbert Edward (1858-1942)

Naturalist

Forrest was born in Wolverhampton, a son of Robert Forrest (1820/1-1880), musician and singer, and his wife Lucy Mary (née Miller, 1825/6-1919). Robert Forrest's parents Edward Forrest (1793-1844) and Elizabeth (née Jeffreys, 1791-1867) lived in Birmingham. Edward Forrest was ‘independent' at the time of the 1841 Census Return; his father Alexander Forrest (1740-1817) brewed porter and ale in Birmingham. Elizabeth Jeffreys was a daughter of Robert Jeffreys (1744-1801), attorney of Shrewsbury. Perhaps Robert Forrest established his music business in Shrewsbury in order to live near his mother's relatives.

Herbert Forrest's mother was born Lucy Mary Miller (1825/6-1919), daughter of William Miller (c.1784-1861) and Frances Bowyer (née Vaux, 1785/6-1854). William Miller was Secretary to Birmingham General Hospital at the time of the 1841 Census Return. He was a son of John Miller (1743-1808), shopkeeper of Ware, Hertfordshire. Frances Vaux was a daughter of Jeremiah Vaux (1745-1829), surgeon of Birmingham. Two of Robert Forrest's siblings married siblings of Lucy Miller: Eliza Forrest (1813-1869) married William Allen Miller (1817-1870, MD FRS, of King's College, London), and Alexander Forrest (1814-1899, accountant of Sparkbrook, Birmingham) married Fanny Brickwood Miller (1820-1893).

Herbert Forrest married Harriette Kate Woolley (1864-1919) in 1888. Harriette was a daughter of Thomas Woolley (1834/5-1903, draper of Hereford) and Harriette Esther (née Carpenter, 1834/5-1889). Thomas Woolley's father was also Thomas (1811-1878, a printer and bookseller who was born in Leominster and died in Ludlow). Harriette Carpenter's father was James Carpenter (1805-1888, a tax inspector of Hereford).

Herbert and Harriette had five children: Mabel Katie (1889-1951, who died unmarried), Robert Edward (1892/3-1965, who married Anita Elizabeth Innes (1889-1935), became a cable-manager and engineer, and lived for a time in Uruguay, but returned to Shrewsbury), Herbert Charles (born 1893/4, who married Marion Emily Smith, like his brother Robert became a cable-operator, then a telegraphist, and lived for a time in Argentina), Lionel Hugh (born 1897, who married Florence Hoyle) and Dorothy Tyrconnel (1900-1973, who became a teacher in Ireland, established a dance school, and died unmarried).


Galliers, John (1785-1846)

Botanist

Galliers was born in Stapleton Castle, now a ruin near Presteigne, and later lived at Brook House, Stapleton. His family owned land at Leintwardine and Wigmore, and his father (William Galliers, 1744-1832) and grandfather had established a reputation for breeding fine Herefordshire cattle, while his mother was born Mary Vaughan, a member of the Vaughan family of Hergest at Kington.

Galliers' obituarist wrote that ‘he possessed a cultivated mind and great store of knowledge in various departments of natural history and science. In botany, especially, he had acquired great proficiency, and there were few native British plants with which he was not acquainted.'

John Galliers' eldest son John (1806-1864) married Mary Ann Cooke, whose mother Esther (née Nott) was a great-great-grand-aunt of William John Norton (1925-2002), for many years was curator of Ludlow Museum, and a knowledgeable naturalist in his own right (p. 334).

Galliers' third daughter, Eliza Sophia (1813-1899) married Philip Lewis Powell (1805-1856), son of Philip Lewis Powell senior (1775-1822) and Elizabeth (née Turner), daughter of James Turner, mayor of Yarmouth, and sister to the botanist Dawson Turner (1775-1858, famous for his two-volume Botanist's Guide through England and Wales, 1805). Elizabeth and Dawson's mother was born Elizabeth Cotman (1742-1819), daughter of John Cotman, merchant and sometime mayor of Yarmouth, forebear of the famous artist John Sell Cotman (1782-1842).


Gepp, Maurice (1859-1947)

Botanist

Gepp was a son of the Reverend Edward Francis Gepp (1819-1903) and Eliza Jemima (née Branfill, 1822-1907), daughter of Champion Edward Branfill (1789-1844) and Anne Eliza (née Hammond), whose own mother was born Charlotte Egerton (1726-1770). Charlotte's paternal great-grandparents were John Egerton (1623-1686, 2nd Earl of Bridgwater, see Dictionary of National Biography) and Elizabeth (née Cavendish, 1626-1663), daughter of William Cavendish (c.1593-1676, 1st Duke of Newcastle). William and his daughter Elizabeth were writers, and both merit entries in the Dictionary of National Biography.

Charlotte Egerton's paternal grandfather Thomas Egerton (1651-1685, of Tatton Park, Knutsford, Cheshire) was also a forebear of William Henry Egerton (pp. 114, 326). Thomas Egerton's brother Sir John Egerton (1646-1701, politician and 3rd Earl of Bridgwater) also has an entry in the Dictionary of National Biography. Gepp was a bachelor, a medical officer of health in Shrewsbury, and an amateur botanist like his brother Anthony (1862-1955) who worked as an algologist at the Natural History Museum in London.


Gilbert, Humphrey Adam (1886-1960)

Ornithologist

Gilbert was a son of Reginald Gilbert (c.1852-1912, lawyer and businessman in India, Fellow of the Zoological Society) and Gertrude Claudine Mary (née Adam, 1862-1946), daughter of Brigadier-General Frederick John Stuart Adam (1837-1920) and Mary Isabella (née Douglas, 1839-1914). Mary Douglas was a daughter of Major-General Claud Douglas (1800-1883) and Mary Magdalen (née Dickson, 1800-1847, daughter of Rear-Admiral Archibald Collingwood Dickson (1772-1827). Archibald Dickson was a brother of Sir Alexander Dickson (1777-1840, KCH, army officer, who merits an entry in the Dictionary of National Biography, and whose son General Sir Collingwood Dickson, 1817-1904, VC, GCB, army officer, also has an entry in the Dictionary of National Biography). Reginald Gilbert was a son of the Reverend John Denny Gilbert (1814-1879), rector of Cantley in Norfolk and third in a line of three priestly Gilberts.

Humphrey Gilbert married Margaret Vincentia Money-Kyrle (1888-1972). She was a daughter of Major Audley Walter Washbourne Money-Kyrle (1846-1908) and Florence Cecilia (née Smith-Bosanquet, 1860-1930).

Gilbert collaborated with Arthur Brook (p. 323) to produce several books about birds in the 1920s and 1930s, as well as with Charles Walker (pp. 181, 338) years later with Herefordshire Birds.


Hallett, Howard Mountjoy (1878-1958)

Entomologist

Hallett was a son of George Hallett (1847-1916, master mariner of Newton Abbott, Torquay, Devon) and Marion (née Ritson, 1853-1938). Howard Hallett married Jessie Eliza Mildred Dewdney (1881-1973); they had three children: George Lancelot (1908-1908), Alan Ritson (1915-1989, naval commander) and Michael Mountjoy (1911-1987, company director, CBE).

Hallett was an accountant. He lived in Penarth, Glamorgan in the early 20th century, and discovered many insects there. In 1935, he moved to Ross-on-Wye, Herefordshire, after which his new county of residence also benefited from his entomological expertise.


Hamilton, William Phillips (1840-1910)

Botanist

William Phillips Hamilton was the elder son of William Hamilton (1798/9-1856) and Elizabeth (née Phillips, 1809-1891). He was born on March 7th 1840 in Cape Town, Cape of Good Hope, South Africa, his parents having married at Caledon, Cape Colony the previous November. William was master of a vessel at some stage of his career, so may have transported troops from England. William Hamilton also became governor of one of Her Majesty's prisons. Elizabeth had travelled from England as governess to the children of a Major Barnes, whose regiment had been posted to South Africa.

William Hamilton was the fifth child of John Hamilton, merchant (1738-1810) and Dorothy (née Hampton, 1771-1838) of Whitehaven, Cumberland. A manuscript written by WPH states that John Hamilton was a grandson of one of the Dukes of Hamilton, but no lineage has been traced.

Whitehaven was a thriving port in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, with maritime commerce a vital part of its economic profile, in which the Hamiltons played a prominent part. Several of William's siblings sailed the seas, and two - Jane (1803-1858, wife of James Gascoigne Gatliff, 1795-1826) and Henry (1800-1858) died in Buenos Aires, Argentina on October 27th 1858. Like his sister Jane, William Hamilton also died in Buenos Aires, but 2 years earlier, in 1856.

Indeed, four of John and Dorothy Hamilton's children - Henry, Christian, Jane and William - lived in Buenos Aires, Argentina in the mid-19th century. Christian and Jane married two Gatliff brothers - William Hoey and James Gascoigne respectively - who were sons of James Gatliff (1765-1831, army officer and Church of England clergyman, who merits an account in the Dictionary of National Biography). A third Hamilton girl - Ann (1805-1891) married John Sim, and their daughter Dorothy (Dora, 1838-1913) married her first cousin William Hoey Gatliff (1825-1888).

Jane's husband James Gatliff died at Bonney on the west African coast in 1826, and in 1848 she joined her son James Reid Gatliff (who had left England for Argentina in December 1847) in Buenos Aires, where they ran a hotel. Jane married secondly Thomas Moore, a wealthy English ironmaster in Buenos Aires, and James Reid Gatliff (1824-1879) married Jane Hamilton Browne (born in Market Hill, Co. Armagh, Ireland, 1834-1878), whose mother was sister-in-law to a male (Henry?) Hamilton uncle.

Elizabeth Phillips was born at Hanwood, near Shrewsbury, Shropshire, a daughter of Thomas Phillips (1778-1845) and Elizabeth (née Cross, died 1847). She was an elder sister of William Phillips (1822-1905), who became a respected antiquarian and naturalist, author of A Manual of the British Discomycetes (pp. 157, 334).

William and Elizabeth Hamilton were based in South Africa by 1839 and remained there until at least 1842, when William Phillips Hamilton's younger brother James John was born, but Elizabeth and the two boys were living in Shrewsbury by the time of the 1851 Census Return.

Ten years later, Elizabeth was widowed, and working as a dressmaker in Shrewsbury, probably for her blood-relatives the Phillipses, who had a tailor's business in the town. Her sons, too, being fatherless, were apprenticed in the trade, and both later became master tailors. At the time of the 1861 Census Return, William was an unmarried hosier, lodging at 16 Bridgwater Square, St Giles Cripplegate in London. Perhaps William and James also joined the family business; their uncle William Phillips employed 40 people at the time of the 1881 Census. By that time, though, WPH was himself self-employed, with ten people working for him.

William Phillips Hamilton married Celia Vine (1851-1934) in 1878. She was a younger daughter of James Vine, who worked for the Inland Revenue, and Marion (née Waddell). Celia and WPH had three children - William Cecil (born 1879), Elizabeth (Bessie) Marion (born 1882) and Herbert James (born 1883). William Cecil died of Bright's Disease in 1891 at the age of 12. Indeed, 1891 was a terrible year for Hamilton, for his mother and brother also died within a few months of William Cecil. John Pool, the Registrar who signed the three death-certificates was probably the same John Pool who had married one of Celia's sisters. The 1890s reached a domestic nadir for WPH when Celia had an affair with the Reverend John Andrews, formerly headmaster of Shrewsbury High School. Their romance was sufficiently flagrant for Hamilton to knock Andrews down in the street on one occasion. Andrews and Celia eloped to the United States of America and were not present to answer the charges at William Hamilton's divorce hearing on January 17/18th 1896, when the judge was sharply critical of such conduct by a clergyman. Hamilton had sought damages from Andrews, but the latter had apparently sold up everything prior to skipping town. Celia Hamilton married Andrews in America on December 30th 1897.

Hamilton's daughter Bessie married in 1909, and went to live at Caversham, Oxfordshire. Herbert James had gone to Australia in 1907, but returned to Shrewsbury to marry his sweetheart in 1909/10, and then emigrated permanently to Renmark in South Australia, moving to Tasmania in 1914.

With only his married daughter as a close relative remaining in England, William Hamilton went to live with her in Caversham, and died there on June 10th 1910.


Harding, Martin John (1853/4-1947)

Entomologist

Harding was a son of John Millard Harding (1821/2-1899, mercer of Shrewsbury) and Mary (née Martin, 1824/5-1900). He married Elizabeth Blanche Collins (1858/9-1939), daughter of James George Collins (1832-1918, commercial traveller), and became a bank manager in Shrewsbury.


Hignett, James (1882-1952)

Entomologist

Hignett was a son of Thomas Henry Hignett (1842-1909, solicitor of Oswestry) and Mary Ann (née Tupper, 1857-1948, daughter of Thomas Tupper, corn chandler). Thomas Hignett's father was Joseph Hignett (1800-1862, farmer).

In 1909, James Hignett married Martha Ann Sperring, daughter of Edmund Sperring (1845-1918, baker) and Elizabeth (née Cheesman, c.1847-1920). James and Martha's daughter Elizabeth Mary Hignett (1912-2004) of Oswestry became a respected botanist.


Hope, Frederick William (1797-1862)

Coleopterist

Hope was a son of John Thomas Hope (1761-1854, of Netley Hall, Dorrington, Shropshire, and of 37 Upper Seymour Street, London) and Ellen Hester Mary (née Edwardes, 1771-1837, daughter of Sir Thomas Edwardes, rector of Frodesley in Shropshire and Tilston, Cheshire).

Frederick Hope married Ellen Meredith (1801-1879), daughter of George Meredith (1762-1831, of Nottingham Place, Marylebone, London, and Berrington Court near Tenbury Wells, Worcestershire) and of Esther Gray (née Saunders, 1779-1857).


Hope-Edwardes, Herbert James (1848-1919)

Lepidopterist

Hope-Edwardes was a son of Thomas Edward Hope-Edwardes (1794-1871, of Netley Hall, Dorrington, Shropshire) and Louisa Charlotte (née Leighton, 1807-1894, daughter of Colonel Francis Knyvett Leighton (1772-1834) of Alberbury, Shropshire. Thomas Hope-Edwardes was an elder brother of Frederick William Hope (above), so Herbert James Hope-Edwardes was Frederick William Hope's nephew.


Houghton, William (1828-1895)

Naturalist

Houghton was the third son of Richard Houghton (1797-1847, gentleman of Liverpool and Ashfield Hall, Neston, Birkenhead) and Jane Eleanor (née Charlton, c.1801-1846, daughter of Philip Charlton, 1767-1843, of Wytheford Hall near Shawbury, Shropshire).

William's maternal family was steeped in the history of the Marches. Philip Charlton descended from the Charltons of Apley Castle near Telford (not to be confused with another Apley near Bridgnorth), and several of William's maternal ancestors merit entries in the Dictionary of National Biography. From their base in mid-Shropshire, the Charlton family had wielded immense influence and patronage in the Welsh Marches since at least the mid-14th century. For example, the Dictionary of National Biography cites John Charlton (died 1353, soldier, administrator and 1st Lord Charlton of Powys), his son Lewis Charlton (died 1369, Bishop of Hereford), Edward Charlton (1370-1421, 5th Baron Charlton of Powys, Sir Job Charlton of Ludford, Ludlow (c.1614-1697, Chief Justice of Chester and sometime Speaker of the House of Commons) and Francis Charlton of Apley Castle (1639-1698, politician).

The Charltons' star was waning by the mid-19th century, but Jane's cousin St John Chiverton Charlton (1799-1873) was living at Apley in the mid-19th century, and one wonders if William Houghton acceded to the rectorship of Preston-on-the-Weald-Moors through the influence of his maternal relatives at nearby Apley, who also owned land at Preston-on-the-Weald-Moors.

William Houghton married Margaret Anne Masefield (1838-1905), daughter of Robert Masefield (1808-1880), farmer of Ellerton Hall, Cheswardine, near Market Drayton. Robert's younger brother George Edward (1812-1886) was paternal grandfather to the author John Masefield (1878-1967).

William and Margaret Houghton had eight children: William Raymond (born 1859), Mary Louisa (1861), John Errington (1862-1933, who emigrated and farmed in Canada), Robert Francis (1863), Arthur Case (1866-1936, who also emigrated to Canada), Gertrude Isabel (1870-1947, who married Reynell Hamilton Baylay Taylor, army officer), Margaret Katherine (1872) and Eleanor Charlton (1877).

Houghton wrote prolifically on wide-ranging topics in natural history. Inter alia he wrote Seaside Walks of a Naturalist (1869), Country Walks of a Naturalist with his Children (1870), The Microscope and Some of the Wonders it Reveals (1875), Gleanings from the Natural History of the Ancients (1879), British Freshwater Fishes (1879, two volumes), The Natural History of Commercial Sea Fishes of Great Britain and Ireland (1884) and other books, as well as many articles about birds, aphids, molluscs, leeches, flatworms, protozoa, and natural history in the ancient world such as Notices of Fungi in Greek and Latin Authors (1885), The Unicorn of the Ancients (1869), The Rabbit as Known to the Ancients (1869), Fish Culture as Practised by the Ancients (1883) and Birds of the Assyrian Monuments (1884).

Although Houghton was accomplished as a mycologist in the field, it is difficult to fully assess his expertise. Allen (pp. 195, 320) and Phillips (pp. 157, 334) evidently knew of what he found, but most of these records no longer survive, either in herbaria or as records in print. After their discovery in Shropshire, Clitocybe houghtonii, Hygrophorus houghtonii (now Hygrocybe laeta) and Pezicula houghtonii were named after him, and in 1868 he reported Coltricia perennis, Gymnopilus sapineus and Lyophyllum fumosum (Preece, 1997). The following year he found Melanogaster variegatus in Lilleshall Woods near Wellington, and Choiromyces meandriformis there in 1875.


Hutchinson, Emma Sarah (1820-1906)

Lepidopterist

Emma Hutchinson was born Emma Sarah Gill, daughter of Thomas Gill (c.1774-1841, commander in the Royal Navy, veteran of the Napoleonic Wars who served under both Nelson and Collingwood, and was a son of the Reverend John Gill, 1750-1809, vicar of Newchurch) and Benedicta (née Brown, c.1785-1850). Emma married Thomas Hutchinson (below) in 1847, and they had five children: Thomas (1848-1916, p. 73, below), Mary (1850/1-1864), Emma (1854-1939), Sara (1856-1902) and John Monkhouse (1857-1944).

Emma's brother Walter Battershell Gill (1823-1900, MD, Fellow of the Zoological Society) was also a noted entomologist.


Hutchinson, Thomas (1815-1903)

Botanist

Thomas Hutchinson's father, also Thomas (1773-1849) married his first cousin Mary Monkhouse (1787-1858) and was brother to Mary Hutchinson (1770-1859), who married the poet William Wordsworth (1770-1850).


Hutchinson, Thomas (1848-1916)

Lepidopterist

Thomas Hutchinson was the eldest son of Thomas and Emma (above).


Ingram, Geoffrey Cheselden Spencer (1881-1971)

Ornithologist

Ingram was a son of John Spencer Ingram (1849-1922, accountant to a railway-proprietor) and Catherine Emma (née Atkinson, 1852/3-1931). Geoffrey Ingram was a clerk to a colliery-owner in 1911, and a commercial clerk in 1931.


Kempster, Charles (1844-1926)

Naturalist

Kempster was a son of Charles Thomas Kempster (1815-1887), and maternal uncle to John Hugh Owen and Owen Rodenhurst Owen (pp. 183, 334). He married his first cousin Mary Kempster, daughter of Edward Kempster, miller of Llansantffraid, Montgomeryshire. Charles Thomas and Edward Kempster were sons of Thomas Kempster and Sarah (née Palin). Charles Kempster's sister Martha married John Owen, farmer of Great Ness, Shropshire.


Knight, Thomas Andrew (1759-1838)

Botanist

Thomas Andrew Knight (1759-1838) and his elder brother Richard Payne Knight (1750-1824) were sons of the Reverend Thomas Knight (1697-1784) of Wormsley Grange, Herefordshire, and rector of Bewdley, Worcestershire, who had married Ursula Nash (1715-1798). Reverend Knight was himself a son of Richard Knight (1659-1745), ironmaster of Bringewood near Ludlow, who bought the estate of Downton, and Elizabeth (née Payne, 1671-1754), daughter of Andrew Payne of Shawbury, Shropshire.

Thomas Knight's paternal uncle Richard Knight (1693-1765) of Croft Castle, Herefordshire married Elizabeth Powell (1695-1778), daughter of Samuel Powell of Stanage Park between Knighton and Brampton Bryan. Richard and Elizabeth's daughter Elizabeth Knight (1719-1813) married Thomas Johnes (1727-1780), and their son the agriculturalist and translator Sir Thomas Johnes (1748-1816) developed the grounds at Hafod in Ceredigion along the picturesque principles promoted by his cousin Richard Payne Knight.

Elizabeth Powell's brother Samuel Powell (1694-1745) was paternal grandfather to Harriet Powell who married Holland Watson, and whose eighth child became the famous botanist Hewett Cottrell Watson (1804-1881).

Two of Thomas Andrew Knight's daughters, Elizabeth (1798-1860) and Charlotte (1801-1842) married well-connected men: Elizabeth married Francis Walpole (1795-1861), great-nephew of the Prime Minister Robert Walpole (1676-1745), and Charlotte married Sir William Edward Rouse Boughton (1788-1856), whose paternal grandmother Mary (1713-1786) was a daughter of Algernon Greville (1678-1720) and his wife Mary (née Somerset, 1692); Mary Somerset was a granddaughter on her father's side of Henry Somerset (1629-1700), 1st Duke of Beaufort. The Somersets' seat was Raglan Castle in Monmouthshire. Algernon Greville's father was Fulke Greville, 5th Baron Brooke of Beauchamps Court, Warwickshire. Fulke Greville married Sarah Dashwood (died 1705), daughter of Francis Dashwood (c.1619-1683). Fulke Greville and Sarah Dashwood were also great-grandparents of Sarah Price (pp. 67, 335).

Frederick Nash (pp. 135, 333) was Thomas Knight's grand-nephew.


La Touche, James Digues (1824-1899)

Geologist

James Digues La Touche, rector of Stokesay between Ludlow and Craven Arms, was a son of Thomas Digues (or Digges) La Touche (1799-1853) of Dublin, and his wife Ann (née Needham, 1799). Originally Huguenots and cloth merchants, the family went into banking, and James's paternal grandfather, William George Digues La Touche (1747-1803) of Dublin was a banker with the East India Company, and merits an entry in the Dictionary of National Biography.

James married Catherine Munro Macleod (1829-1915), daughter of Martin Donald Macleod (1794-1863) of Invermoriston, near Fort Augustus, Inverness-shire. James and Catherine had four children: Reverend William Martin (1854-1926), Thomas Henry (1855-1938), Mary Alexa (1860-1949) and Grace (1866-1947).


Lees, Edwin (1800-1887)

Botanist

Edwin Lees was the son of Thomas Lees (1772-1809), a woollen-draper at Worcester, and grandson on his father's side of a tenant-farmer at Donnington, near Albrighton in Shropshire. Thomas Lees migrated down the Severn Valley to settle in Worcester.

Edwin's mother was born Elizabeth Teverill in 1777, the eldest daughter of James Teverill, a baker in Birmingham. The Teverills must have moved to Worcester in the late 18th century, for Elizabeth's half-sister Mary also married a Worcester man. Her husband, John Vine Hall, was a stationer and bookseller, so this may have been how Edwin first came into contact with printed works of natural history such as Withering's Botanical Arrangement. Edwin's Aunt Mary had well-to-do relatives in Birmingham on her mother's side of the family who, after Edwin's father died, arranged for Edwin to be privately educated in Birmingham. After his schooling, Edwin perhaps became apprenticed to his uncle in Worcester, and succeeded him in business there.

Edwin Lees married Sarah Wright Kingsbury (c.1803-1878, daughter of James Kingsbury, hosier of Tewkesbury) in 1827, and in 1883 he married Jane Matthews (née Bridges c.1834-1913, daughter of Joshua Bridges farmer of Worcester, and widow of John Matthews auctioneer of Worcester). Edwin had no children by either wife.


Leighton, William Allport (1805-1889)

Botanist, Lichenologist

Leighton was a son of William Leighton (1774-1825) who kept the Talbot Hotel in Shrewsbury, and of Lucy Maria (née Allport, 1783-1809), daughter and co-heiress of John Allport (died 1807) of Prescott near Baschurch, and Shrewsbury.

In 1827, before going up to Cambridge, Leighton married Catherine Parkes (1799/1800-1873, daughter of David Parkes, 1763-1833, schoolmaster and antiquary of Shrewsbury, see Dictionary of National Biography), and they had a daughter Catherine (born 1827/8), followed by Gertrude (1834/5-1907) and William (1835/6) after Leighton had graduated.

After Catherine died, in 1877 Leighton married secondly the widowed Sarah Gibson (née Allen, 1845/6-1931, daughter of John Allen of Leaton), by whom he had a son Henry Allport Leighton (1878-1945).


Lewis, Thomas Taylor (1801-1858)

Geologist

Lewis was the third son of Edward Lewis (1772-1818), a master-butcher in Broad Street, Ludlow, and grandson on his father's side of Thomas Lewis, a cooper in Corve Street, Ludlow.

Thomas Taylor Lewis's mother was born Ann George (1773-1864), daughter of James George, gentleman of Caynham near Ludlow. Ann's brother was a gentleman-farmer who left £4,000 to Thomas, which explains how the third son of a high-street butcher found himself going up to Cambridge in 1819 - a circumstance of some little surprise to the social historian.

Lewis was also connected by blood-ties to other naturalists in Shropshire and Herefordshire. His paternal grandmother, born Elizabeth Onians, came from a well-to-do family in the Aldon/Stokesay area north of Ludlow, from which other girls married into the Galliers (pp. 123, 327) and Williams (pp. 52, 339) families in the mid-18th century. The Reverend Edward Williams (1762-1833) was Shropshire's premier botanist during his lifetime.

Lewis married Eliza Penfold (1800-1828) of Cheam, Surrey in 1827, and they had a daughter Grace Katherine (1828-1916). Eliza died in childbirth, and in 1838 Lewis married Elizabeth Jane Woodhouse Ferguson (1814-1872), daughter of George Ferguson and Elizabeth (née Woodhouse, 1793-1814) of a north Herefordshire family, one of whom had built Yatton Court at Aymestrey. The wealthiest branch of the Woodhouse family later took up residence at Aramstone, King's Caple, south of Hereford, while other Woodhouses became merchants in Leominster, including Thomas John Woodhouse, who subsequently retired to Aymestrey. His only son, Thomas Woodhouse (1830-1891), entered the Church and eventually took up livings outside Herefordshire, but as a young man he contributed many botanical records from the Aymestrey district to Purchas and Ley's Flora of Herefordshire.

Nor is that all. One of T.T. Lewis's daughters by his second marriage, Edith, married the Reverend Thomas Owen Rocke of Clungunford in south Shropshire; four generations of Rockes held the living at Clungunford from 1779 to 1945. Lewis geologized at Norton Camp, near Craven Arms in 1832 with John Rocke (1783-1849), whose son John (1817-1881, pp. 85, 335) owned one of the kingdom's finest and most complete collections of stuffed birds.


Ley, Augustin (1842-1911)

Botanist

Augustin Ley was born at Hereford on April 3rd 1842, the second son of Reverend William Henry Ley (c.1815-1887) and Mary Prichard (c.1816-1844), a daughter of Dr James Cowles Prichard (1786-1848) of Bristol. Both of James's parents came from well-established Quaker families in Herefordshire, and one of James's great-uncles was very wealthy. Cowles was the surname of James's paternal grandmother.

Augustin's mother died in 1844, and William Henry remarried in 1870. His new bride was Gertrude Gee (1839-1920), daughter of Thomas Gee (1812-1905) and Maria (née Prichard, 1817-1847). Thomas Gee married secondly Agnes Moline, whose mother Mary (née Prichard, 1791-1868) was a daughter of Thomas Prichard (1765-1843) and Mary (née Lewis, 1763-1799) and sister to James Cowles Prichard. The Prichards boasted several individuals who became sufficiently prominent to merit entries in the Dictionary of National Biography, including James Cowles Prichard himself.

Another branch of the Prichard tribe married into the Newman family (who were also Quakers) with the wedding of Ann Prichard (1771-1849) to George Newman (1774-1845) in 1797. George and Ann spent their later years living at Leominster, Herefordshire. The eminent naturalist Edward Newman (1801-1876, pp. 62, 334) was their son. Through the Prichards, Ley was also distantly related to Henry Southall (1826-1916), a respected botanist of Ross-on-Wye.

James Prichard converted to the Anglican Church while a student at Cambridge. He became well known for his pioneering work in anthropology and mental illness, and published several books including Physical History of Mankind (1813), On the Different Forms of Insanity in Relation to Jurisprudence (1842) and The Natural History of Man (1843).

Dr Prichard's wife was born Anna Maria Estlin (born 1788), the daughter of John Prior Estlin (1747-1817) who was a prominent Unitarian minister and schoolmaster at Bristol. Anna's brother, John Bishop Estlin (1785-1855) became a pioneering ophthalmic surgeon who married Margaret Bagehot in 1817. Margaret was a member of the Bagehot family of Langport, Somerset, which also spawned Walter Bagehot (1826-1877) the political commentator, economist and journalist. After Anna died, James Cowles Prichard married Emma Henrietta Ley in 1841, so the marriage of Augustin Ley's parents was another union between the Ley and Prichard families.

James Cowles Prichard's second son, Augustin Prichard (1818-1898), took over his father's practice in Bristol, was interested in botany [he contributed to E.H. Swete's Flora Bristoliensis (1854)], and helped to guide his young nephew's early steps in natural history. Augustin Prichard married Mary Sibellah (or Sibella) Ley, who was born at Maker, near Torpoint, Plymouth in 1818/9 - yet another union between the Leys and Prichards. Mary Ley was a daughter of Thomas Henry Ley, and sister of William Henry Ley. She had eight children, and died at Barton Regis in 1892.

William and Mary Ley's mother was Sarah Hillyar (c.1790-1857) before she married Thomas Hunt Ley, and many years later another male Ley married a female Hillyar when Augustin Ley's brother William Clement Ley married Elizabeth Crockett Hillyar in 1865.

Another odd coincidence occurs with Augustin Prichard's son, Edgar Prichard, who married Eleanor Openshaw, whose father came from Bury in Lancashire: Herefordshire's premier bryologist in succession to Ley, Charles Herbert Binstead (p. 322), had a brother who also married an Openshaw girl whose father was born in Bury.

Augustin Ley's father, William Henry, was also born at Maker, son of the Reverend Thomas Hunt Ley (c.1786-1866), who was in turn the son of John Ley, and apparently descended from John Ley (died 1775), gentleman of Trehill, near Exeter.

Numerous male Leys became clergymen in Devon and Cornwall during the 17th and 18th centuries, but after a short career at his college in Oxford, William Henry became headmaster of the Cathedral School at Hereford. He resigned that position around the time of Augustin's birth, and was instituted to the living at Sellack vicarage near Ross, which was combined with the neighbouring parish of Kings Caple immediately across the River Wye.

Augustin and his elder brother William Clement were educated at home instead of school. Their father not only taught them, but also passed on his love of natural history, and the two boys were collecting and pressing wild flowers at an early age, encouraged also by their maternal uncle Augustin Prichard (1818-1898) of Bristol.

During his teenage years, Augustin Ley probably met the Reverend William Henry Purchas (1823-1903, pp. 80, 335) when Purchas visited the county from time to time. Purchas was a native of Ross, and stimulated the botanical ambitions and adventures of the recently established Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club in the 1850s and 1860s, but spent his working career outside Herefordshire. Another local botanist, Burton Mounsher Watkins (1816-1892, p. 338, a Relieving Officer, or Victorian social worker) took interest in bryophytes as well as vascular plants, as did the Reverend James Frederick Crouch (1809-1888, p. 325) of Pembridge, Herefordshire.

William Henry Ley's confidence in his own ability to teach was justified as Augustin followed his brother to Oxford. William Clement Ley was ordained and eventually became rector of Little Ashby in Leicestershire. Thus, he and his brother were a third generation in a direct line of Leys who become priests.

While at Oxford, Ley met and became friends with Henry Boswell (1837-1897), who was in trade in the town, and spent his hours of leisure botanizing in the countryside around Oxford. Boswell was an accomplished bryologist, and very likely stimulated Ley's bryological career.

Augustin was at Oxford from 1862 until 1865, and after being ordained a priest became curate at Buxton in Derbyshire from 1867 until 1871. After that, Augustin returned to Sellack in order to assist his father with his duties at Kings Caple, and lived in his home county for the rest of his life. He remained at Sellack until 1878, when he married and took up duties as vicar of St Weonards, about 6 miles west of Ross.

Augustin's wife was born Sarah Lucy Du Buisson in 1855, a daughter of Edmund Du Buisson (1821-1875, vicar of Breinton near Hereford from 1854 until his death) and Charlotte Anne Dunning Ley, daughter of Thomas Ley, rector of Rame near Torpoint, Plymouth. Was this the same Thomas (Hunt) Ley who was curate at nearby Maker, and father of William Henry? Thus, the Leys and Du Buissons were already related, and Augustin and Lucy were cousins. The Du Buissons were originally Huguenots, who had made their fortune from dyeing and printing fabrics in London. They owned Glynhir, an estate at Llandybie in Carmarthenshire, where Augustin botanized on several occasions, and where the British Bryological Society stayed during their Summer Meeting in 2002.

The marriage of Augustin and Lucy was short, for Lucy caught a chill when they returned to England from their honeymoon on the Continent. Despite the best efforts of Henry Graves Bull, the Hereford physician and mainstay of the local Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club's ‘forays among the funguses', Lucy's chill deteriorated into pneumonia, and she died on April 16th 1878, only two and a half months after the wedding. The Du Buisson Diaries, begun by Sarah Lucy Du Buisson before she married, and continued by Augustin Ley for about 18 months after her death are at the Record Office in Hereford. After his wife died, Augustin immersed himself in his clerical duties and pastoral cares, and found further solace in botany. For the next 30 years Ley ransacked Herefordshire and neighbouring counties on the Welsh border for plants, all the while recording, collecting, and discovering many uncommon species.

Ley also travelled further afield when on holiday, for example to Norway in 1863 and 1873, the Alps, France and the Riviera. In Scotland, he went to the Cairngorms in 1874, Angus (Forfarshire) in 1876, and also explored in Argyllshire.

In 1885, he returned to Sellack in order to assist his ailing father with his duties there, and when William died in 1887 Augustin became vicar of Sellack and Kings Caple, remaining in post until he retired in 1908. Augustin shared a roof with his step-mother Gertrude (née Gee, 1839-1920, who was only 3 or 4 years older than Augustin himself) from the time of his father's death until his own death 24 years later. Gertrude's own mother was born Maria Prichard (1817-1847), daughter of Edward Prichard, banker of Ross-on-Wye and brother to James Cowles Prichard. Thus, Gertrude was already related to William Henry Ley before they married, and a cousin to Augustin Ley as well as his step-mother.

Charles Herbert Binstead (1862-1941, p. 322) joined Ley in Herefordshire from 1890. Binstead was destined to match Ley's expertise in field-bryology. Ley would also have become acquainted with Eleonora Armitage (1865-1961), who lived near Ley just outside Ross, and became the only founding lady member of the Moss Exchange Club in 1896. Ley, though, never joined the Moss Exchange Club, probably because by then his eyesight had begun to deteriorate. In later years, he tended to concentrate on the ‘difficult' genera of flowering plants, such as Rubus and Rosa, Hieracium and Sorbus.

Augustin Ley died on April 23rd 1911 at Brampton Lodge, Netherton, Brampton Abbotts, near Ross. His herbarium is at Birmingham University, with additional plants at Oxford, Bolton, and Belfast.


Lhuyd, Edward (1660-1709)

Naturalist

Lhuyd was an illegitimate son of Edward Lloyd (1635-1681) of Llanforda near Oswestry, and Bridget Pryse of Glanfred, Tal-y-bont, Cardiganshire. Bridget's father was Thomas Pryse of Gogerddan, a member of one of the most prominent families in north Cardiganshire. Both Edward senior and Bridget were gentry, and distantly related.


Lingwood, Robert Maulkin (1813/4-1887)

Naturalist

Lingwood was born in Suffolk, a son of Anna Maria (née Maulkin, daughter of Robert Maulkin of Bury St Edmunds) and Peter Lathbury Lingwood, and probably related on his mother's side to the Reverend Peter Lathbury (1760-1820), rector of Livermere in Suffolk, and a noted botanist. Peter Lingwood's parents were Thomas Lingwood (died 1829) of Brome, Suffolk and Mary (née Lathbury).

Lingwood married his first cousin Elizabeth Sole Lingwood, who was probably a grand-niece of the botanist William Sole (1741-1802); Robert and Elizabeth had no children.

While an undergraduate at Cambridge, Lingwood became friendly with Charles Cardale Babington (p. 42). Robert and Elizabeth Lingwood had taken up residence in Herefordshire by the 1840s, living at Sufton Court, Mordiford in 1845, and by 1851 had moved to Lyston Court at Llanwarne. Robert was appointed High Sheriff of the county in 1848, becoming Deputy Lieutenant in 1861. However, he subsequently removed to Devon ‘having met with a severe reversal of fortune', and by 1866 ‘had retired to the Continent' but soon returned to England. By 1880, Robert and Elizabeth were living at Cheltenham, where Elizabeth's brother Robert Sole Lingwood was a solicitor.


Lloyd, James William (1838-1906)

Ornithologist

Lloyd was a son of William Lloyd (1817/8->1861) and his wife Sarah. James married Mary Helen Barton (1837/8-1891), daughter of George Barton, manufacturer of corn rollers in 1851.


Lloyd, Llewelyn Cyril (1904-1968)

Naturalist

Lloyd was a son of Albert John Lloyd (1872/3-1943, journalist) and Mabel Harriet (née Porter, 1882-1958). Albert Lloyd was born at Nantmel near Rhayader, Radnorshire, a carpenter's son. Albert was working as a journalist in Nottingham by 1901, and moved to Shrewsbury in 1931 in order to produce the Shrewsbury Circular. Llewelyn took over production when his father died in 1943.


Lloyd, Robert Wylie (1868-1958)

Entomologist

Lloyd was a son of John Lloyd (born 1842/3, bleacher and calico printer) and Rachel (née Wylie, 1844/5). John Lloyd was born in Manchester, and lived at Horwich. Rachel Wylie was born in Glasgow.

Robert Lloyd's elder brother was Nathaniel (c.1867-1933), an eminent poster-printer. Both brothers became very wealthy through their business careers.


Macnair, Veronica Janet (1902-1975)

Botanist

Like so many of the Marches' prominent naturalists, Macnair came from a well-connected, middle-class family, and some of her forebears were notably prominent in their own fields of activity. Her father, John (Jack) Frederick Macnair (1846-1908) of Auldmarroch, Dumbartonshire and Pennal Tower, Pennal, Machynlleth was a son of James Macnair (1796/7-1865), a well-respected land-improver of Stirlingshire and Ayrshire who married Janet Smith Ranken (1810-1889), whose father Andrew Ranken (1785-1851), merchant of Glasgow owned a plantation in Jamaica. Andrew Ranken's father was Alexander Ranken (1755-1827), minister of the Church of Scotland who became moderator of the Assembly of the Church of Scotland, and wrote a nine-volume History of France (1802-1822). Andrew Ranken married Hannah Smith (1789-1866), daughter of John Smith (1739-1816), 4th Laird of Craigend and a merchant of the West Indies. His antecedents had traded in tobacco in the United States.

Veronica Janet Macnair's mother was born Veronica Charlotte Evans (1867/8-1969) whose father Lewis Pugh Evans (1837/8-1907) subsequently changed the family's surname to Pugh. Lewis Pugh was a barrister-at-law, sometime Attorney General of Bengal, and Liberal MP for Cardiganshire. He was a son of John Evans (1803-1874) and Elizabeth (or Eliza as she was known, née Pugh, 1808-1874) of Lovesgrove near Aberystwyth, and married Veronica Harriet Hills (1844-1931), daughter of James Hills (1801-1872) and Charlotte Maria Antoinette (née Savi, 1813-1850). Elizabeth Pugh was a daughter of Lewis Pugh. Veronica Harriet Hills was born in Bengal, India, where her father owned a plantation and traded indigo. Her brother was Lieutenant-General Sir James Hills-Johnes (1833-1919). Charlotte Savi was a daughter of John Angelo Savi (1765-1830/1), ship-owner and indigo merchant, and Elizabeth (née Corderan, 1775-1858), daughter of General André Francois Corderan (1742-1816), commander of the French forces at Pondichéry or Pondicherry (now Puducherry) in India. John Savi was a son of Admiral Antonia Savi (1720-1806), commander of the Elban fleet.

Veronica Janet Macnair's father died while she was still a child, and she and her mother later moved to Lower Garth, Guilsfield near Welshpool.


Marston, Alfred (1834-1896)

Naturalist

The Marstons were yeomen-farmers who had held land in south-west Shropshire's Clun valley since the 14th century. Alfred's father Francis (1789-1850) lived at Aston-on-Clun and was a magistrate and Justice of the Peace. Alfred Marston was a chemist of Ludlow, like his uncle Richard (1792-1866). Richard Marston was also a founding member of the Ludlow Natural History Society in 1833 and brother-in-law to John Evans (1804-1959) who was born at Leominster but moved to Worcester to practise as a chemist, where he co-founded the Worcestershire Natural History Society in 1833. Evans's daughter Frances Elizabeth (c.1827-1882) married back into the Marston family when she wedded Richard Marston (1825-1892) who was a solicitor and son of Francis Marston (1789-1850, brother of Richard and brother-in-law to John Evans) (Torrens, 2013). Alfred Marston was also more distantly related to Edward Marston (1825-1914), publisher, author and angler, who merits an entry in the Dictionary of National Biography.


McGhie, Mary (c.1870-1844)

Botanist

McGhie was a mulatto, daughter of Robert McGhie (1740-1806), the wealthy owner of an estate at Greenside, Trelawny, Jamaica, and Sarah, a free negress. Her father's parents were Robert McGhie (1705-<1771) and Elizabeth (née Gibson, died 1771), daughter of Sir Thomas Gibson (?1672-1713) of Keirhill, Edinburgh. Robert McGhie senior and his father James McGhie (died 1742) were merchants of Edinburgh, and Robert probably went out to Jamaica around 1740 to own and run a sugar-plantation at Greenside, Trelawny. His was the era of slave-labour, and Mary's mother Sarah was probably a slave on Robert McGhie's estate. She and her children Thomas and Mary by Robert McGhie were subsequently granted ‘white' status in the Acts of the Jamaican Assembly.

An estate neighbouring Greenside was owned by another Scotsman, John Cunningham, and Greenside passed to George Cunningham after Robert McGhie disposed of his interest at the end of the 18th century. The author Tobias George Smollett's (1721-1771) mother was born Barbara Cunningham.

The McGhies were also connected by marriage with Ann Stone Barnet (or Barnett), daughter of Captain Jonathan Barnet (c.1677-1744), buccaneer turned pirate-hunter, who captured the notorious pirates ‘Calico' Jack Rackham, Anne Bonny and Mary Read. Ann Barnet married Mary McGhie's uncle James McGhie. Their son Robert McGhie (1752-1815) married Elizabeth Pomeroy Bruce, daughter of Captain James Bruce and Janet (or Jane, née Gibson, c.1725-1776); Jane was a daughter of Sir Edward Gibson (died 1727), son of Sir Thomas Gibson (above). Thus, Robert McGhie (died 1815) and Elizabeth Bruce were distant cousins.

The McGhies were also related to George Crawford Ricketts, sometime attorney-general, advocate-general and Privy Councillor to the King while in Jamaica. Ricketts' paternal grandmother was born Sarah Waite (1688-1759), whose relative Frances Simpson Waite (1778-1850) was a cousin of George Crawford Ricketts and married Samuel Wells Barnett, grand-nephew of Mary McGhie's great-uncle Captain Jonathan Barnet. Ricketts retired to Ashford Hall, Ashford Bowdler, near Ludlow, and subsequently to Combe, in north-west Herefordshire. His daughter Eliza Bourke Ricketts (c.1783-1814) married the Reverend Robert Fitzwilliam Hallifax (c.1778-1837), rector of Richard's Castle (see Rocke, p. 335).

Archibald Thomson, merchant of Kingston, Jamaica was also related to the McGhies. By his first wife (a free mulatto) his son (also Archibald, died 1839, of Halkin, Flintshire, merchant of London) was a cousin of Mary McGhie. Archibald Thomson junior's son William Smith Thomson (c.1813-1866) was vicar of Bala at the time of Mary McGhie's death. By his second wife, Archibald senior had three daughters, of whom Mary married Robert Stewart and they settled at Ryton Grove, near Dorrington, south of Shrewsbury.

By the late 18th century the McGhies had established themselves commercially in London as well as the West Indies, where Mary's uncle Thomas McGhie (1738-1818) was a sugar-broker who doubtless imported and sold goods from his brother's Jamaican estate.

In another branch of the McGhie family, the grandson of a Brodie McGhie (mariner, died 1780), Brodie McGhie Willcox (1786-1862) co-founded the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company, now more succinctly known as P&O.


Meinertzhagen, Richard Henry (1878-1967)

Ornithologist

Meinertzhagen's father Daniel (1842-1910) was head of a merchant bank second in importance only to that of the Rothschilds, while his mother Georgina (née Potter, 1850-1914) was a sister of Martha Beatrice Potter (1858-1943) who married Sidney James Webb (1859-1947) and established the London School of Economics and the socialist Fabian Society. Richard Meinertzhagen was distantly related to Miriam Rothschild (pp. 257, 335), for his sister Katherine Beatrice Meinertzhagen (1885-1971) was mother to Teresa Georgina Mayor (1915-1996) who married Miriam's brother, the zoologist Nathaniel Mayer Victor Rothschild (1910-1990).

Richard Meinertzhagen's mother was born Georgina Potter (1850-1914). Georgina was sister to Margaret Heyworth Hobhouse (1854-1921, author of ‘I appeal unto Caesar': The case of the Conscientious Objector (1917), as well as the social reformer Beatrice Webb (1858-1943) and the social worker Catherine Courtney (1847-1929).

Meinertzhagen's second wife Anne Constance (née Jackson, 1888-1928) was an ornithologist, and after she died in a shooting, Meinertzhagen became companion and next-door neighbour for the remainder of his life to his niece Theresa Clay (pp. 257, 325).


Melvill, James Cosmo (1845-1929)

Botanist, Malacologist, Entomologist

Melvill was a son of James Cosmo Melvill senior (1821-1880), undersecretary of state for India, and his wife Eliza Jane (née Hardcastle, 1823-1904). James Cosmo Melvill senior was a son of Sir James Cosmo Melvill (1792-1861), chief secretary of the East India Company, who merits an entry in the Dictionary of National Biography.

James Cosmo Melvill (1845-1929) married Bertha Dewhurst (1853-1933), daughter of the immensely wealthy George Charnley Dewhurst (1807-1894) of Manchester and Lymm, manufacturer of Sylko cotton. James and Bertha had seven children.


More, Robert (1703-1780)

Botanist

More was a son of Robert More senior (1635-1719, naturalist, FRS, MP) and his second wife Sarah (née Walcot, 1662-1737; see Price, p. 335). Robert More senior was a son of Colonel Samuel More (?1594-1652 or 1662) of Linley, near Bishop's Castle, Shropshire, and his second wife Elizabeth (née Worsley, c.1600-1655). Samuel More was a Parliamentarian, and defended Hopton Castle. Sarah Walcot was a daughter of John Walcot (c.1624-1702) of Lydbury North.

Robert More junior had two sons by Ellen Wilson (died 1768); she was a daughter of Thomas Wilson of Denbighshire. In 1768, he married his distant cousin Catherine More, daughter of Thomas More of Millichope, Shropshire; they had no children.

Robert More junior became an MP in 1754, but retired from Parliament in 1759. He was a friend of Littleton Brown (pp. 39, 323), and also met the Swedish botanist Linnaeus. When More died in 1780, his hot-house plants (including ‘mosses'), etc. at Shrewsbury were put up for sale.


Nash, Frederick (1813-1883)

Co-founder of Ludlow Field Club

Frederick was an illegitimate son of Richard Nash (1755/6-1815), gentleman of Ludlow by his housekeeper Mary Williams (1776-1858). Frederick's paternal grandfather was Samuel Nash (1717/8-1796), agent for Richard Payne Knight of Downton (p. 42) and who had Dinham Hall built at Ludlow in 1792. Samuel's elder sister Ursula Nash (1715-1798) married Reverend Thomas Knight (1697-1764), rector of Ribbesford, Bewdley, and their sons were Richard Payne Knight and Thomas Andrew Knight of Downton. Thus, Frederick Nash was a grand-nephew of Ursula Knight. At the age of 21, Frederick changed his surname from Williams to Nash in order to inherit from his father (who had married Mary before he died).

In his will Richard Nash mentions Brooke Foss Westcott of Ludlow, who married Nash's relative Mary Nash in 1791. As befitted a gentleman in the late 18th century, Westcott took interest in botany, and his son Frederick Brooke Westcott (1800-1867) became a chemist and druggist, as well as lecturer in botany at Sydenham College Medical School, Birmingham (now part of Birmingham University). Frederick's son Brooke Foss Westcott junior (1825-1901) was educated at King Edward's School, Birmingham, collected ferns and Lepidoptera as a boy, became Regius Professor of Divinity at Cambridge and ultimately Bishop of Durham.


Newman, Edward (1801-1876)

Naturalist

Newman was born and lived in London. His parents were George Newman (1774-1845) and Ann (née Prichard, 1771-1849). Ann was a daughter of Edward Prichard (1722-1775), who was born at Almeley, Herefordshire. The Prichards and Newmans were Quakers. The Prichards also appear in Augustin Ley's (pp. 77, 330) family tree; his mother was born a Prichard. Ann Prichard was a keen botanist, and must have influenced Edward's early botanical career.

George and Ann Newman moved from Godalming to Leominster in 1826.

Edward Newman had an elder sister Mary (1799-1806) and four brothers: Thomas (1797-1800), George (1808-1847), Josiah (1812-1884) and Henry (1818-1908). George became a chemist, Josiah a grocer, and Henry a bookseller - all in Leominster. Henry was a noted botanist, like his elder brother, and George reported insects from Kimbolton and Leominster (Entomological Magazine 3, 416).

Edward Newman never lived in Leominster, but visited his relatives there. He married Maria Preston Hale (born 1814) in Cheltenham in 1840. She was a daughter of Charles Henry Hale (1786-1864), music-seller.


Newnham, Francis Brown (1849-1922)

Lepidopterist

Frank Newnham was the third son of Thomas Garrett Newnham (1810/1-1898), ‘architect and inventor', who in 1851 was a civil engineer working on the western branch of the Montgomery Canal. Frank was born at Llanllwchairn (Llanllwchaearn), Newtown, and trained for the law after graduating from Oxford, but by 1901 was a patient at Stretton House, a private asylum in High Street, Church Stretton.


Norton, William John (1925-2002)

Naturalist

John Norton was a son of Richard John Harold Norton (1879-1954, auctioneer) and Ann (née Nott, 1898). John Norton was distantly related to John Galliers (pp. 123, 327). Norton's great-great-grand-aunt Esther Nott (c.1793-1871) married John Dunne Cooke (1787/8-1860), and their daughter Mary Ann Cooke (1824-1897) married John Galliers junior (1806-1864), eldest son of John Galliers the botanist.


Owen, John Hugh (1877-1959)

Ornithologist

John Owen collected birds' eggs, like his younger brother Owen (p. 183 and below). His father was John Owen (1836/7-1901) and his mother was Martha (née Kempster). His maternal uncle was Charles Kempster (p. 329). Owen was a schoolmaster, and taught at Felstead in Essex for much of his career. He collected birds' eggs in his youth, but later progressed to observing and studying the behaviour of birds. He did not marry.


Owen, Owen Rodenhurst (1879-1944)

Egg-collector

Owen collected birds' eggs, and was a bank-accountant in 1911. His elder brother was John Hugh Owen (p. 184 and above) and his maternal uncle was Charles Kempster (p. 329).


Peele, Alice Jane (1865-1883)

Botanist

A ‘Miss Peel' who found the rare Ghost Orchid (Epipogium aphyllum) on Bringewood Chase near Ludlow in 1878 was almost certainly a de Courcy Peele. Perhaps she was Alice Jane de Courcy Peele (1865-1883), who died a few days short of her 18th birthday. Alice Peele was the daughter of Richard de Courcy Peele (1817-1884), a retired army surgeon and son of Joshua Peele (1775-1845, wine merchant and mayor of Shrewsbury in 1817) and Eliza de Courcy (née Dicken, died 1843) of Shrewsbury (p. 67).

The de Courcy Peeles of Ludlow lived at 38 Broad Street, a few doors up from the Lloyds (p. 69), and were related to Robert Lightbody (c.1802-1874), a noted geologist and President of the Woolhope Club in 1861 who married Jane de Courcy Peel (1814-1876) in 1840. Robert Lightbody and his wife share a grave with their niece Alice Jane Peele and her family in St Leonard's churchyard at Ludlow. Later generations of de Courcy Peeles living in Shrewsbury also became keen naturalists.

Sarah Wingfield (born 1727), daughter of Borlase (or Borlaise) Wingfield (born c.1683) of Preston Brockhurst and his wife Ellen (née Hill, sister of Sir Rowland Hill of Hawkstone Park) married Thomas Dicken, and their daughter Jane Dicken married Richard de Courcy, whose daughter Eliza de Courcy Dicken (died 1843) married Joshua Peele (1775-1845) and begat the Courcy Peeles who became naturalists in subsequent generations.

Sarah Wingfield's younger sister Mary (1732-1813) married John Rocke (died 1782, sometime mayor of Shrewsbury; see Rocke, p. 335).


Pennant, Thomas (1726-1798)

Zoologist

Pennant was a son of David Pennant (1685-1763) of Whitford, Holywell, Flintshire, and Bychton, and his wife Arabella (née Mytton, c.1690/95-1744) of Halston, Oswestry, Shropshire. Arabella was the third daughter of Richard Mytton of Halston, near Oswestry.

Pennant married Ann Mostyn, daughter of Sir Thomas Mostyn (1704-1758) of Flintshire.


Phillips, William (1822-1905)

Botanist

Phillips was a son of Thomas Phillips (1778-1845, a painter in 1841) and Elizabeth (née Cross or Crosse, c.1780-1847). Thomas and Elizabeth both came from Shrewsbury, but moved to Presteigne in Radnorshire, where William was born.

With his elder brother James, William succeeded to the tailor's business of their uncle Samuel Maddox in Shrewsbury. In 1881, they employed 40 people as tailors and military outfitters. William married Sarah Ann Hitchins (1824-1895) at Shrewsbury in 1846, and they had five children.

William's elder sister Elizabeth (1809-1891) married William Hamilton (1798-1858), and their eldest son William Phillips Hamilton (1840-1910, pp. 224, 328) joined his uncle's business in Shrewsbury, later becoming self-employed. Phillips not only helped his nephew professionally, but doubtless also stimulated his interest in botany.


Pinches, William (1802-1849)

Naturalist

Pinches lived at Ticklerton in Corvedale, Shropshire. His father (also William) left £3,700 when he died in 1819, so the family were comfortably off.

His sister Elizabeth (1809-1859) married the Reverend Robert Joseph Buddicom (1815-1895) and they were paternal grandparents to Robert Buddicom (pp. 114, 324).


Pitt, Frances (1888-1964)

Naturalist

Frances Pitt was a daughter of William James Pitt (1857/8-1944), solicitor of Bridgnorth, Shropshire, and Frances Jane (née Harvey, 1857/8-1949). Her parents moved from Oldbury Grange to the 200-acre Westwood Farm, Oldbury, Shropshire in 1892, and then to The Albynes, 3 miles south of Bridgnorth in 1903. Frances did not marry, and lived with her parents on a farm at Albynes near Astley Abbotts until 1947. After her parents died she moved to Castle House, Harley, near Much Wenlock in 1958.

Pitt wrote popular natural history books: Wild Creatures of Garden and Hedgerow (1920), Woodland Creatures (1922), Waterside Creatures (1925), Naturalist on the Prowl (1934), Wild Nature's Day (1936), The Romance of Nature (1936), The Wild Animals in Britain (1938), How to see Nature (1940), Wildlife Studies (1941), The Year in the Countryside (1947), Nature Through the Year (1950), Country Years (1961), among numerous others.

Apart from pursuing her interests in natural history and writing books, Pitt also led the local Wheatland Hunt.


Plymley, Katherine (1758-1829)

Artist

Katherine was a daughter of Joseph Plymley (1716-1802, apothecary and surgeon of Shrewsbury, who contributed illustrations for Thomas Pennant's British Zoology, and moved to Longnor, a mile south of Hope's home at Netley). Her mother was Diana (née Flint, 1725-1779, whose own mother was born Jane Waties Corbett, 1690-1762). Katherine's brother Joseph changed his surname to Corbett on succeeding to the estate at Longnor after his uncle Robert Corbett (né Flint) died.

Katherine's nephew the Reverend Waties Corbett (1796-1855, rector of Coreley and Acton Scott, perpetual curate of Leebotwood with Longnor, and Chancellor of the diocese of Hereford) liked his botany, finding Marsh St John's Wort (Hypericum elodes), Mountain Pansy (Viola lutea) and Ivy-leaved Bellflower (Wahlenbergia hederacea) on Titterstone Clee Hill, Water Lobelia (Lobelia dortmanna) on the Long Mynd and Burnt-tip Orchid [Neotinia (Orchis) ustulata] near Millichope in Corvedale.


Potts, George (1866-1945)

Lepidopterist

Potts was a solicitor, son of Edward Bagnall Potts (1838-1911, also a solicitor) and his wife Ann Elizabeth (née Charlton, 1840-1905). He married Elsie Gertrude Dale (1868-1960), daughter of William Dale, veterinary surgeon. Potts knew William Beriah Allen's (pp. 195, 320) father, who named him as co-executor in his will.


Price, Sarah (1793-1869)

Mycologist

Sarah Price was a daughter of Reverend John Walcot (1766-1835), vicar of Bitterley, and Sarah (1762-1834), daughter of Sir John Dashwood-King (né Dashwood, 1716-1793). Sarah Price's parents were cousins of each other, sharing Sir Francis Dashwood (1613-1683, of Somerset and merchant of London) as a great-grandfather. Tracing back through the generations from Sarah Price's maternal grandmother, the poet John Milton (1608-1674) was Sarah's great-great-great-great-grand-uncle. Her father's great-great-grandfather, John Walcot (1624-1702) came from Lydbury North near Bishop's Castle, where a fine hall and parkland survive to the present day at Walcot Park (see More, p. 333). Several Salopian Walcots of preceding eras were prominent as judges and politicians in public life, and merit entries in the Dictionary of National Biography. In addition, Francis Dashwood's daughter Sarah married Fulke Greville, and their great-great-grandson William Edward Rouse-Boughton (1788-1856) married Charlotte Knight, daughter of Thomas Andrew Knight (1759-1838) of Downton (pp. 42, 329).


Pugh, Cyril Henry Wallace (1889-1973)

Dipterist

Wallace Pugh was a solicitor at Oswestry, son of Henry James Wallace Pugh (1861-1921), also a solicitor of Oswestry, and his wife Mary Emma (née Peate, 1862-1922). Pugh did not marry.


Purchas, William Henry (1823-1903)

Botanist

Purchas was the eldest son of Thomas Whittlesey Purchas (1790-1873, wine merchant of Ross-on-Wye) and Jane (née Bishop, c.1795-1866). He married Frances Williams (c.1825-1884) and they had six children: Reverend Griffiths Thomas William (1859-1941), Frances Eleanor (1861-1954), Catherine Mary (born 1862), Reverend Arthur Bishop (1864-1958), Anna Jane (1865-1945) and Alice Rosamond (1868-1951).

William Henry Purchas trained as an Anglican priest, and held incumbencies outside Herefordshire from the 1870s onwards. He was an accomplished botanist who studied plants closely and carefully, but published little of his own work.


Rocke, John (1817-1881)

Naturalist

John Rocke, banker and landed proprietor of Clungunford House, Clungunford, Shropshire, was also a justice of the peace, Deputy Lieutenant for Shropshire, and Sheriff of the county in 1869. He was a son of Reverend John Rocke (1783-1849), rector of Clungunford and his wife Anne (née Beale, 1792-1857, cf. Symonds, p. 336). Anne Beale was a daughter of Thomas Beale of Heath House, Shropshire and Constance Isabella (née Salwey), daughter of Richard Salwey of Moor Park near Ludlow (p. 336). John Rocke senior was himself a son of Reverend John Rocke (c.1755-1824) of Shrewsbury and Clungunford, whose mother Mary was a daughter of Borlaise (or Borlase) Wingfield (p. 84; Peele, p. 334) of Preston Brockhurst, Shropshire. In addition, John Rocke's (c.1755-1824) sister Mary (1756-1809) married Thomas Eyton (pp. 84, 326), who corresponded with Erasmus Darwin, Charles Darwin's grandfather.

John Rocke's (1817-1881) elder sister Mary Ann married Reverend Charles Walcot (1794-1875) of Bitterley, Shropshire. Charles Walcot was a son of John Walcot (1766-1835) and Sarah (née Dashwood-King, 1762-1834), daughter of John Dashwood-King (1716-1793) of West Wycombe, Buckinghamshire (see also Price, this page).

In addition, John Rocke's younger brother Thomas Owen Rocke (1823-1892) married Edith Lewis (1843-1888), daughter of Thomas Taylor Lewis (pp. 141, 330) and his second wife Elizabeth Jane Woodhouse Ferguson.

John Rocke (1817-1881) married Constance Anne Cuyler (1829/30-1908), daughter of Major-General Sir Charles Cuyler (1794-1862) and Catherine Frances (née Hallifax, 1805-1877). Catherine was a daughter of the Reverend Robert Fitzwilliam Hallifax (c.1778-1837, rector of Richard's Castle) and Eliza Bourke (née Ricketts, c.1783-1814). Eliza was a daughter of George Crawford Ricketts (died 1811; see McGhie, p. 332).

John and Constance Rocke's daughter Constance Ida (1854-1884) married Colonel Evan Aubrey Thomas (1844-1927), who assisted John Arthington Walpole-Bond in his exploration of Radnorshire's birds in the summer of 1902 (pp. 181, 338). And the colonel's elder brother Edward David Thomas (1839-1923) married Carolina Louisa Greenly (c.1840-1922), whose brother Edward Howorth Greenly (né Allen, 1837-1926) of Titley, Herefordshire contributed botanical records to Purchas and Ley's Flora of Herefordshire.


Rothschild, Miriam Louisa (1908-2005)

Zoologist

Rothschild was a daughter of Nathaniel Charles Rothschild (1877-1923), who left estate valued at £2,250,000 when he committed suicide in 1923. The Rothschilds were Jewish bankers, and Charles's parents were first cousins of each other, as indeed were both sets of Charles's grandparents. Miriam's Hungarian mother was also Jewish, and highly accomplished at lawn tennis. She met Charles Rothschild when he visited Hungary (in a district subsequently annexed by Romania) on a butterfly-collecting expedition. Charles was an authority on fleas, and his brother Lionel Walter Rothschild (1868-1937) was also a keen zoologist who established a natural history museum at the family home in Tring, Hertfordshire. Miriam Rothschild followed her father in becoming an authority on fleas, and was also an expert on flukes.


Ruddy, Thomas (1842-1912)

Naturalist

Ruddy was one of the first naturalists to live in Montgomeryshire who contributed records of its natural productions for posterity. He was born in Murrisk, Ireland, a son of Thomas Ruddy senior (1813-1865), who was also born in Murrisk, but died in Jedburgh, Scotland. Thomas junior became a gardener, first in Derbyshire, later in France, and designed and laid out the gardens at Palé Hall, Llandderfel, near Bala, Merionethshire where he lived in 1871, 1881, 1891 and 1901.

After he took up employment at Llandderfel, Ruddy married secondly Frances Harriett (née Williams, 1846-1898). Their daughter Caroline (Carrie) Elizabeth (1886-1945) also became interested in natural history, and joined the Moss Exchange Club (forerunner of the British Bryological Society). Frances's mother was born Frances Pamplin, sister of the botanist and bookseller William Pamplin (1806-1899) who retired from his business in London to settle at Llandderfel. Pamplin's father and paternal grandfather had been gardeners and nurserymen in the metropolis, so William was steeped in botanical lore and expertise, but his career altered course after he married Caroline Elizabeth Hunneman (1793-1876) in 1840. Her father John Hunneman (c.1760-1839) was a botanical bookseller and publisher in Soho, London, and Pamplin took over the business after Hunneman died. He also acquired the natural history periodical The Phytologist.


Salmon, Harry Morrey (1891-1985)

Bird-photographer

Harry Morrey Salmon, CBE, MC, soldier, rubber merchant, was born and died in Cardiff. His father Harry Edgar Salmon (1864-1934, Fellow of the Zoological Society) traded in India rubber and leather at Cardiff. His mother was born Florence Isabelle Thurstan (1865-1952), daughter of James Thurstan (c.1827-1911), manager of a district goods railway.

Salmon married Violet Annie Mabel Evans (1896-1978, daughter of William James Evans, broker and cashier of Whitchurch, Glamorgan) in 1927. Their two sons Norman and Hugh wrote Footprints in the Sands of Time - the life and times of Colonel Harry Morrey Salmon (2011).


Salwey, Thomas (1791-1877)

Lichenologist

Salwey was a son of Theophilus Richard Salwey (1757-1837) of The Lodge, Richards Castle, near Ludlow and his wife Anna Maria (née Hill, 1767-1812). Anna was a daughter of Thomas Hill (1721-1776), MP, of Court of Hill, near Ludlow, who had married his cousin Lucy Rocke (c.1727-1792). Lucy Rocke was a sister of Thomas Rocke (1717-1803, rector of Ludlow), who also married his cousin Martha Hill (1722-1772), sister to Thomas Hill (see Rocke, p. 335).

Theophilus Richard Salwey's mother was born Constance Biddulph (cf. Symonds, this page), daughter of Francis Biddulph (1683-1744) and Margaret (née Lygon, 1710-1736).

Thomas Salwey's paternal great-great-great-grandparents were Richard Salwey (c.1615-1686), politician and a major in the Parliamentary army, and MP for Worcestershire (1653) and Westmorland (1659), and his wife Anne Waring (cf. Darwin, p. 325), daughter of Richard Waring, Esquire, alderman of London. Richard Salwey was a son of Humphrey Salwey (c.1575-1652), politician and lawyer, and his wife Ann (née Littleton, 1581), daughter of Sir Edward Littleton of Pillaton Hall, Staffordshire (cf. Brown, p. 323).

Thomas Salwey married Frances Maria Gibbons (1800/1-1881) in 1829, daughter of the late Henry Gibbons, Esquire, of Oswestry; Thomas and Maria had nine children: Constance Frances (1830-1865), Edward (1833-1857, who died in India), Arthur (who, like Edward, went in the army), Henry (born 1836, who became a priest), John (1838-1919, who also became a priest), Alfred (1841-1902), Herbert (1842-1929, also a priest) and two children who died in infancy.


Shephard, Herbert Henry (1893-1986)

Lepidopterist, Malacologist

Shephard was a son of William Henry Shephard, glass and china dealer in Manchester, and Annie (née Hall). He became a schoolmaster, and retired to Bucknell in south-west Shropshire in order to live near his wife's relatives.


Smith, Emily Stedman (1848-1925)

Botanist

Emily Smith was a daughter of Thomas Smith (1798->1877) and his wife Sarah. Thomas Smith was a landowner and farmer, JP, of Bromley, Worfield, near Bridgnorth. Emily married Edward Devey Farmer (1839-1907) in 1883, and they had four children.


Smith, Mary (née Thompson) (born 1810)

Botanist

Mary Smith discovered the rare Ghost Orchid (Epipogium aphyllum) at Tedstone Delamere, Herefordshire in 1854. Her father was Vice-Admiral Sir Thomas Boulden Thompson (1766-1828), naval officer and a colleague of Nelson's, who lost a leg during hostilities at sea (see Dictionary of National Biography) of Hartsbourne Manor Place, Hertfordshire. Her mother was born Ann Raikes (1771-1846), daughter of Robert Raikes of Gloucester, who first promoted Sunday schools.

Mary Thompson married the Reverend William Anderton Smith, son of the Reverend Jeremiah Smith (1771-1854, who was successively curate at St Mary's, Moseley, Birmingham, second master at King Edward's School, Birmingham from 1798 to 1807, and then headmaster of Manchester Grammar School from 1807 to 1838). Jeremiah Smith has an entry in the Dictionary of National Biography). He had married Felicia Anderton, daughter of William Anderton (died c.1831, son of Isaac Anderton, toymaker of Wake Green, Moseley, Birmingham).


Symonds, William Samuel (1818-1887)

Geologist

Symonds was a son of William Symonds (1800-1840), JP and Deputy Lieutenant, and his wife Mary Anne (née Beale, 1801-1859, cf. Rocke, p. 335).

William Symonds was appointed curate of Offenham near Evesham, Worcestershire in 1843, and rector of Pendock near Malvern in 1845. While at Offenham he met the geologist Hugh Edwin Strickland (1811-1853), who enthused him with the subject. Symonds also wrote historical novels, such as Malvern Chase (1881) and Hanley Castle (1883).

In 1840, Symonds married Hyacinth Catherine Kent (1818-1907), daughter of Samuel Kent (died 1847), wine and spirit merchant. They had at least four children, of whom Powell William Symonds (1845-1879) married Constance Biddulph (cf. Salwey, this page) of Ledbury, and Hyacinth (1842/3-1931) married the ornithologist Sir William Jardine (1800-1875) in 1872, and the botanist Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (1818-1911) in 1876. Catherine Jardine (a daughter from William Jardine's first marriage) married the geologist Hugh Edward Strickland (1811-1853; above) who was friendly with Symonds, and whose grandfather Edwin Cartwright had invented the power-loom. And Symonds's great-nephew Frederick Kingsley Symonds-Tayler (1895-1917) collected butterflies that are now at Hereford Museum.

Symonds was President of the Malvern Naturalists' Field Club from 1853 until 1871, and inherited Pendock Court from his mother.


Symons (or Symonds), Jelinger (1778-1851)

Botanist

Symonds was vicar of Monkland, near Leominster from 1800 until his death, but was neither born nor brought up in the Marches. His link with Herefordshire came through his mother's side of the family; his great-great-grandmother was born Lucy Price, daughter of Robert Price of Foxley and great-aunt to Sir Uvedale Price (1747-1829), who espoused the Picturesque Movement and enthused Richard Payne Knight with a similar devotion to the countryside's intricacy and natural variety.


Thornewill, Charles Francis (c.1841-1929)

Lepidopterist, Arachnologist

Thornewill was a son of Robert Thornewill (1799-1858), mechanical engineer (the Thornewills ran an iron foundry) and armiger of Burton-on-Trent, by his second wife Martha Hammond (née Wright, 1807-1889), daughter of John William Wright (1771-1853) of Eyam Hall near Burton-on-Trent. Charles Thornewill married Elizabeth Edmunda Ann Johnson (1847-1920), daughter of Thomas Johnson (1802-1851).


Tomlin, John Read le Brockton (1864/5-1954)

Coleopterist, Conchologist

Tomlin was a son of John Read Tomlin (1816-1871), farmer, and Sarah Elizabeth (née Lund, born 1838), daughter of the Reverend Samuel May Lund (1793-1865). His sister Lilian Ethel (born 1870) also collected beetles.

Tomlin was a schoolmaster. He taught at Llandaff Cathedral School, Glamorgan from 1890 to 1899, and Darley Dale, Derbyshire until 1902. In 1906, he moved to Reading and married Eleanor Marjorie Kensington (c.1883-1947), daughter of Theodore Kensington who taught at Winchester School. In 1922, he moved again to St Leonards-on-Sea.


Vaughan, John Williams (1853-1931)

Lepidopterist, Coleopterist

Vaughan lived at The Skreen, Erwood, Radnorshire, and was a Justice of the Peace, Deputy Lieutenant of Radnorshire, and High Sheriff of the county in 1885. He was a son of John Williams Vaughan (1810-1897, formerly John Jones) of Velinewydd, Llandefalle, Breconshire, and his wife Elizabeth Fortune Mary (née Williams), who descended from the Norman knight Sir Richard Bois.

John Williams Vaughan's brother Henry Gwynne Vaughan (c.1812-1877) of Cynghordy, Carmarthenshire was paternal grandfather to the palaeo-botanist David Thomas Gwynne Vaughan (1871-1915), who married the academic botanist Helen Charlotte Isabella (née Fraser, 1879-1967, see Dictionary of National Biography). The families of Vaughan, Gwynne Vaughan and Williams Vaughan were all related, owned ground in the neighbourhood of Erwood and Llanelwedd in the Wye valley, and included several active naturalists.

John Williams Vaughan married Elizabeth Bertha Harris, daughter of Reverend Henry Walpole Mohun Harris (1835-1902). John and Elizabeth had three children: John Christopher Arthur (1891-1916), Francis Herbert Mohun (born 1893) and Dorothy Eden Nissa.


Venables-Llewelyn, Charles Michael Dillwyn (1900-1976)

Naturalist

Brigadier Sir Charles Michael Dillwyn Venables-Llewelyn played a prominent role in the study of Radnorshire's wildlife in the 20th century.

His father Sir Charles Leyshon Dillwyn Llewelyn (1870-1951) was a keen ornithologist and left an estate worth £319,829 which presumably eased the burden of running the family's affairs at Llysdinam, Newbridge-on-Wye. The estate at Llysdinam came into possession of the Venables-Llewelyns following the marriage of Charles Leyshon Dillwyn Llewelyn to Katharine Minna Venables (1870-1956), whose father the Reverend Richard Lister Venables (1809-1894) was vicar at Clyro and resided at Llysdinam Hall.

The Llewelyn's paternal forebears included several naturalists. Charles Michael's paternal great-great-grandfather was the famous botanist Lewis Weston Dillwyn (1778-1855), porcelain-manufacturer of Swansea and author of British Confervae (1802-9) and co-author with Dawson Turner of The Botanist's Guide through England and Wales (2 volumes, 1805). Dillwyn was also a forebear of the 20th century botanist Ann Powell (p. 193).

Lewis Weston Dillwyn's son John Dillwyn Llewelyn (1810-1882), MP, sometime High Sheriff of Glamorgan, founding member of Glamorgan County Cricket Club, was also an amateur botanist and vice-President of the Royal Horticultural Society. He grew orchids in his conservatory and wrote an article about them for the Journal of Horticultural Science in 1846. John Dillwyn Llewelyn's wife was born Emma Thomasina Talbot (1806-1881), whose maternal aunt Elizabeth Fox-Strangeways (1773-1846) married William Davenport Talbot (1763-1800) of Lacock in Wiltshire; their son William Henry Fox Talbot (1800-1877) became a noted photographer as well as a botanist and friend of Lewis Weston Dillwyn.

The Llewelyns intermarried numerous times with the Talbot and Beach families. Thus, Sir Charles Michael Dillwyn Venables-Llewelyn married Delia Mary Hicks-Beach (1910-2006), whose paternal grandfather was the Tory politician and 1st Earl of Aldwyn Michael Edward Hicks-Beach (1837-1916). And his sister Caroline Julia Hicks-Beach (1839-1917) was Sir Charles Michael Dillwyn Venables-Llewelyn's paternal grandmother.

Caroline's paternal great-grandmother was Henrietta Maria Beach (1759-1837), whose paternal grandfather was Thomas Beach (1684-1753) of Keevil in Wiltshire. Thomas Beach's daughter Jane Beach (1722/6-1768, whose brother William (1719/20-1788/90) sired Henrietta Maria Beach) married the Reverend Thomas Talbot (1719-1758), and their granddaughter Emma Thomasina Talbot married John Dillwyn Llewelyn. In addition, Thomas Talbot's sister Martha Talbot (1720-1790) married the Reverend William Davenport (1725-1781), rector of Bredon, Worcestershire. William's father was Henry Davenport (1677-1731) of Worfield, Shropshire, and William's grandson was William Henry Fox Talbot. And Elizabeth Fox-Strangeway's sister Mary Lucy (1773-1855) married the Reverend Thomas Talbot's son Thomas Mansel Talbot; their daughter Elizabeth Thomasina married John Dillwyn Llewelyn.

In a subsequent generation, Lewis Weston Dillwyn's son Lewis Llewelyn Dillwyn (1814-1892) married Elizabeth de la Beche (1819-1866), daughter of the prominent geologist Sir Henry Thomas de la Beche (1796-1855), and their daughter Mary de la Beche Dillwyn (1839-1922) possessed one of the largest privately owned collections of butterflies in her time. Sir Henry's paternal grandfather Thomas was born at Bradford in Wiltshire in 1715, became attorney-general of Jamaica in 1766, then Chief Justice of Jamaica from 1766-1770, changed his surname from Beach to de la Beche, and died in Jamaica in 1774. He was probably a kinsman of William Beach (1719/20-1788/90), who also came from Wiltshire, as did the Talbots of Lacock.


Vize, John Edward (1831-1916)

Mycologist

Vize was born and brought up in London, the eldest child of John Vize (1804-1840, a schoolmaster) and Matilda (née Lucy, 1797-1837, daughter of Thomas Lucy, 1764-1829). With both parents dead by the time he was ten, Vize and his younger brother and sister were living with relatives of his father in 1841. In 1855, he married Hannah Louisa Astley (1818/9-1912, daughter of William Astley of Bath). John and Hannah had a son Thomas Charles Vize (1857-1887, who started a science club in Cirencester in 1881, but then emigrated, and died in Capetown, South Africa) and a daughter Clara (1859-1953) who did not marry.

Matilda Lucy's brother Charles Lucy (1799-1870, corn merchant and sometime mayor of Stratford-upon-Avon) had a son William Charles Lucy (1822-1898), corn merchant and geologist, who became president of the Cotteswold Naturalists' Field Club.


Walker, Charles William (1895-1995)

Ornithologist

Walker was a son of George Walker (1863-1937), minister at Aberdeen. The Walkers came from Kirkwall in Orkney. Charles's mother was Isabella (née Strong, 1871), daughter of Charles Isham Strong (1838-1914) of Longthorpe Hall, Northamptonshire, High Sheriff of Cambridgeshire and Huntingdonshire in 1876. Isabella's mother was born Katharine Anne Powlett (1838-1923). The Powletts were high-born politicians in the 17th century, and merit entries in the Dictionary of National Biography; Katherine's grandfather Percy Powlett (1730-1776) was an illegitimate son of Charles Powlett (1685-1754), 3rd Duke of Bolton, and the celebrated actress and singer Lavinia Fenton (née Besswick, 1710-1760).


Walpole-Bond, John Arthington (1878-1958)

Ornithologist

Walpole-Bond was a son of the Reverend John Bond (1847-1931, clergyman, son of Edward Bond, upholsterer of Paddington, London) and Mary Raine (née Walpole, 1838-1917), daughter of Joseph Kidd Walpole (1799-1869).

In 1899, Walpole-Bond married Gladys Tathan (1880-1961), daughter of Percy Charles Tathan (1845-1925), solicitor. Walpole-Bond described himself as a ‘lecturer and author' in 1911.


Watkins, Burton Mounsher (1816-1892)

Botanist

Watkins was a son of William Watkins, a shoemaker of Monmouth. In 1841, he lived with his parents and helped his father at work, but in 1843 he married Elizabeth Thomas. They had two sons and two daughters: Burton (1844/5-1913, who was a rate-collector in London in 1901), Elizabeth (born 1847/8), William Edward (1851/2-1925, who was a draper's assistant in London in 1911) and Mary (born 1855/6).

Burton Mounsher Watkins was a relieving officer by 1851, and remained in that occupation until he retired. His wife died in the 1850s, and he did not remarry.


Weyman, Arthur William (1860-1935)

Bryologist

Weyman was born in Ludlow on July 13th 1860, the fourth of five children born to Thomas Weyman (1819-1873), solicitor, and Mary Maria (née Bluck, 1827-1901), youngest child of Samuel Bluck (1781-1866), a farmer of 422 acres in 1861, and Sarah (née Bowen, 1783-1861).

Thomas Weyman was a son of Thomas Weyman (1792-1859), farmer of 410 acres at Berrington Court and Purslow Hall, Purslow, Shropshire, and his first wife Ann (née Pitt, died 1840). Thomas Weyman senior was a son of William Weyman (1760-1839) of Stockton and Boraston, Herefordshire.

Arthur William's four siblings were: Henry Thomas (1850-1941), Maria (born and died in 1852), Stanley John (1855-1928) and Louisa (born 1863). Henry Weyman followed his father into practice as a solicitor in Ludlow, and wrote Ludlow in Bygone Days (1913) and other works. He was also sometime mayor of Ludlow. Stanley John and Arthur William also qualified in law, but Stanley's nature drove him to become a writer, and he achieved considerable fame as an author of many popular historical novels (see Dictionary of National Biography). His first novel was The House of the Wolf (1890), followed by many more including Under the Red Robe (1894), The Castle Inn (1898), Count Hannibal (1901), The Long Night (1903), and considerably later The Great House (1919) and Ovington's Bank (1922), among others.

Arthur qualified as a solicitor in 1883, and joined the family firm to practice in Ludlow. In 1888, he married Emma Seward Wood (1860-1925), daughter of the Reverend Horace Seward Wood (1826/7-1885) and Sarah Catherine (née Hemsley 1833), daughter of Edward Hemsley, solicitor. Horace Wood was a son of the Reverend Benjamin Wood (1791/2-1857), perpetual curate of Haveringland, Norfolk from 1823 until his death.

Arthur and Emma had two children: Arthur (1889-1969) who became a major and then lieutenant-colonel in the army, and Winifred Seward (1892-1967). The family lived in Mill Street, Ludlow in 1891, and subsequently at 54 Broad Street, Ludlow.

Winifred did not marry; she lived and died in Ludlow. Major Arthur Weyman, MC, of The Royal Leicestershire Regiment married Joyce Annette Pack-Beresford (1900-1977) in 1922. Joyce was a daughter of Reynell James Pack-Beresford (1872-1949) of Woburn House, Millisle, Co. Down (and also of Athlone, Co. Westmeath), who bred pedigree livestock, and Florence (née Leith, died 1953). Reynell's brother Denis Robert Pack-Beresford (1864-1942) was a keen natural historian. The Pack-Beresfords descended from Major General Sir Denis Pack (c.1772-1823), KCB (see Dictionary of National Biography) and Lady Elizabeth Louisa Beresford (1783-1856), fourth daughter of George de la Poer Beresford, 1st Marquess of Waterford. Reynell James Pack-Beresford descended on his mother's side from Lady Charlotte Bourke (died 1806), daughter of the Most Reverend Joseph Deane Bourke (died 1794), 3rd Earl of Mayo.

Weyman had an eclectic mixture of more distant relatives emanating from a family called Edwards, who had farmed on Shropshire's Welsh border from at least the 16th century, becoming ‘gentlemen farmers' by the 19th. The children of Richard Edwards (1748-1832) of Clunbury in the Clun Valley included Sarah Edwards, who married Thomas Middleton; Thomas and Sarah's daughter Martha (1812-1899) became Thomas Weyman's (1792-1859) second wife after Ann Pitt died. Arthur Weyman had descended from Ann, not Martha, but a recently widowed Martha, who lived and farmed at Purslow Hall just along the Clun Valley from Clunbury inherited property at Cwm (or Combe) after her uncle James Edwards died in 1859.

Another of Martha's uncles, William Edwards became a draper in Ludlow and in 1798 married Anna Maria Brettel-Vaughan (1779-1841), daughter of Susannah Brettell (or Brittell, 1756-1786) and Joseph Vaughan of Ludlow, whose ancestor John Vaughan was a 13th century Welsh knight and buried at Ludlow. Joseph and Susannah married at Bromfield, just north of Ludlow. The Brettells had owned land at Bromfield since at least as far back as the mid-18th century, and continued to do so in the 19th century. William and Anna's son William Edwards (1801-1884) was born in Ludlow, and changed his surname to Brettel-Vaughan in 1850 in order to inherit property. At the time of the 1871 Census Return he was living at Cwm, and entertaining Frederick Nash (pp. 135, 333); they presumably knew each other from time spent in each other's company at Ludlow.

Another of Richard Edwards' sons, John Edwards had a daughter Sarah Susan who married John Hewett, and their son Edward Edwards Hewett (1843-1884) married Annie Goodchild Shipley, daughter of John Shipley (1787-1851) and Ann (née Goodchild, 1794-1841). Edward and Annie's son Edward Shipley Hewett (or Hewitt) was another individual who later changed his surname to Brettel-Vaughan in order to inherit the property at Cwm, Clunbury. Annie Shipley's brother Alexander's son Sir Alexander Everett Shipley (1861-1927, see Dictionary of National Biography) became a zoologist who specialized in the study of parasitic worms, Professor of Zoology and Vice-Chancellor at Cambridge University, and also wrote popular books. His sister Evaline Demezy Shipley married the mineralogist Arthur Hutchinson (1866-1937, see Dictionary of National Biography), and their son George Evelyn Hutchinson (1903-1991) became a highly respected and renowned ecologist in America.

Sarah Edwards (c.1810-1866), who may have been a sister of William Edwards junior married Allen Jackson Nightingale (died 1844) at Ludlow in 1831; their daughter Maria Alicia Johanna Nightingale (1835-1886) was also visiting William Edwards Brettell-Vaughan at the time of the Census Return in 1871. William's first wife was Alicia Jackson (c.1811-1842), daughter of Samuel Jackson, merchant of Liverpool. With these names, it seems likely that Allen Jackson Nightingale and his daughter Maria Alicia were related to the Jacksons as well as the Edwards/Brettell-Vaughans even before Sarah Edwards married Allen Nightingale.


Williams, Edward (1762-1833)

Botanist

Williams was born at Leighton, Shropshire, the eldest son and second child of Edward Williams (1730/1-1824) and Barbara Letitia (formerly Corbet, née Mytton, 1732-1796).

Barbara was the daughter of Mary Elizabeth (née Davenport, c.1705-1740), daughter of Henry Davenport (born 1677) of Davenport House, Worfield, near Bridgnorth, Shropshire and of John Mytton (1690-1754) of Halston Hall near Oswestry. Arabella Mytton, who was born at Halston to Richard Mytton at the end of the 17th century became Thomas Pennant's mother (see Pennant, p. 334). A later John Mytton (1796-1838) was dubbed ‘Mad Jack' Mytton because of his reckless life-style and profligate way he squandered the family's fortunes.

In 1750, Barbara married John Corbet (c.1710-1759), a widower of Sundorn Castle near Shrewsbury, and they had five children, of whom John (1751-1817) became Sheriff of Shropshire in 1793, Andrew (1753-1824) became a Lieutenant Colonel in the army, and Mary Elizabeth married Sir John Kynaston Powell, Bt in 1778.

Barbara married Edward Williams, gentleman of Leighton in about 1760, the year after her first husband died. They and their children lived at Leighton until 1778, when Edward bought real estate at Eaton Mascott, a few miles closer to Shrewsbury. He continued to live there until his death in 1824. Edward Williams (the father) was a man of considerable property and wealth; a note accompanying his draft will of about 1800 at Shropshire Archives in Shrewsbury (ref: D3651/D/46/1/403) assesses the value of his estate at £12,800 gross and £7,800 after allowing for debts.

Edward junior was in his penultimate year at Repton School in Derbyshire in 1778, from where he went up to Pembroke College at Oxford before taking holy orders. He died a bachelor at Glansevern Lodge in 1833, and was buried at Battlefield. The contents of his house were sold by auction. His plants are at Merseyside County Museum in Liverpool.


De Winton, Walter (1868-1935)

Zoologist

Walter de Winton was a son of Captain Walter de Winton (1832-1878) and his wife Frances Jessie (née Talbot, 1842/3-1918). Walter senior was a son of Walter de Winton (1809-1840), MP, ‘who enjoyed a princely income', and was born the son of Walter Wilkins (1777-1831), who was a son of Walter Wilkins (1741-1828), Whig MP and High Sheriff of Radnor, as well as first Governor of Chittagong, India.

Frances Jessie Talbot was a daughter of the Reverend Hon. Arthur John Chetwynd Talbot (1805-1884).

Walter de Winton (1868-1935) married Hylda Therese Jane Marshall (c.1870-1945), daughter of Lt-Gen. Sir Frederick Marshall (1829-1900) of Godalming, Surrey. They had three children: Walter (1893-1914), Joan Mary (1896-1972) and Gerald Frederick (1904-1991).


Wood, John Henry (c.1840-1914)

Entomologist

Wood, a general medical practitioner of Tarrington in Herefordshire, was a son of Miles Astman Wood (1807-1898), also a GP, of Ledbury, and Anne (née Webb, c.1811-1872). Anne was a daughter of Thomas Webb, JP, DL, banker of Ledbury, and his wife Anne (née Knight), daughter of the Reverend Thomas Knight (1713-1793 of Joyfields, Castlemorton, Malvern). Anne Webb's brothers Joseph Webb and Charles Knight Webb trained as medical men, like the Woods.

John Henry Wood was the second of seven children; his siblings were Myra (1840-1884), Miles Astman (1842-1922, surgeon), Major-General Sir Elliott Wood (1844-1931), Elizabeth Bertha (1847-1877) and Charles Knight (1851-1923, Lieutenant-Colonel in the army). All but Charles died without issue.


Woodforde, Francis Cardew (1846-1928)

Entomologist, Arachnologist

Woodforde was a son of Francis Henry Woodford (sic), a physician of Sherborne in Dorset. He was a grandson of Francis Woodforde (c.1787-1867) of Ansford, Somerset, and his wife Cornelia (née Cardew, 1793-1870).

Woodforde became a schoolmaster, completing his career as headmaster at Market Drayton, Shropshire. He married his cousin Anna (or Annie) Woodforde (1848-1899) in 1874; they had seven children.